September 13

13 September

1609 – Henry Hudson reaches the river that would later be named after him – the Hudson River.
1759 During the Seven Years War, a worldwide conflict known as the French and Indian War in America, the British under General James Wolfe achieve a dramatic victory when they scale the cliffs over the city of Quebec, defeating the Marquis de Montcalm’s French forces on the Plains of Abraham. Wolfe himself was fatally wounded during the battle, but his victory ensured British supremacy in Canada. Montcalm also suffered a mortal wound during the battle. In the early 1750s, French expansion into the Ohio River valley repeatedly brought France into armed conflict with the British colonies. In 1756–the first official year of fighting in the Seven Years War–the British suffered a series of defeats against the French and their broad network of Native American alliances. However, in 1757, British Prime Minister William Pitt (the older) recognized the potential of imperial expansion that would come out of victory against the French and borrowed heavily to fund an expanded war effort. Pitt financed Prussia’s struggle against France and her allies in Europe and reimbursed the colonies for the raising of armies in North America. By 1760, the French had been expelled from Canada, and by 1763 all of France’s allies in Europe had either made a separate peace with Prussia or had been defeated. In addition, Spanish attempts to aid France in the Americas had failed, and France also suffered defeats against British forces in India. The Seven Years War ended with the signing of the treaties of Hubertusburg and Paris in February 1763. In the Treaty of Paris, France lost all claims to Canada and gave Louisiana to Spain, while Britain received Spanish Florida, Upper Canada, and various French holdings overseas. The treaty ensured the colonial and maritime supremacy of Britain and strengthened the 13 American colonies by removing their European rivals to the north and the south. Fifteen years later, French bitterness over the loss of most of their colonial empire contributed to their intervention in the American Revolution on the side of the Patriots.
1782Franco-Spanish troops, acting abroad to distract British efforts from The American War of Independence, launch the unsuccessful “grand assault” during the Great Siege of Gibraltar. An attempt by Spain and France to capture Gibraltar from the British. This was the largest action fought during the war in terms of numbers, particularly the Grand Assault of 18 September 1782. At three years and seven months, it is the longest siege endured by the British Armed Forces.
1788 The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital. The Constitutional Convention authorized the first federal election resolving that electors in all the states will be appointed on January 7, 1789. The Convention decreed that the first federal election would be held on the first Wednesday in February of the following year.
1789 Start of the US National Debt as the government took out its first loan, borrowed from the Bank of North America (NYC) at 6 percent interest. The US debt had reached $77 million when Washington became president.
1803 – Commodore John Barry, considered by many the father of the American Navy, died in Philadelphia.
1812A supply wagon sent to relieve Fort Harrison is ambushed in the Attack at the Narrows. Following the relief army to Fort Harrison was a party of thirteen soldiers under Lieutenant Fairbanks of the Seventh Infantry escorting a supply wagon loaded with flour and meat. The supply wagon was ambushed by a Potawatomi war party at a part of the trail known as The Narrows, an area near modern Fairbanks, Indiana, which has many ravines that serve as tributaries to Prairie Creek. When the ambush was launched, the draft horses panicked and ran away with the wagon. Only two men – the wagoneer, John Black, and Private Edward Perdue – managed to escape back to Fort Knox alive, although Perdue was discharged due to the severe wounds he received. Luckily for the two survivors, the Potawatomi gave chase to the runaway supply wagon. Eleven soldiers and all the provisions were lost to the United States, and several Potawatomi warriors had been killed or wounded.
1813 – John Sedgwick (d.1864), Major General (Union volunteers), was born.
1814In a turning point in the War of 1812, the British fail to capture Baltimore. During the battle, Francis Scott Key composes his poem “Defence of Fort McHenry”, which is later set to music and becomes the United States’ national anthem.
1847 General Winfield Scott wins the last major battle of the Mexican-American War, storming the ancient Chapultepec fortress at the edge of Mexico City. The war between the U.S. and its southern neighbor began the year before when President James Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to advance to the disputed Rio Grande border between the newly-minted American state of Texas and Mexico. The Mexican government had once controlled Texas and refused to recognize the American claim on the state or the validity of the Rio Grande as an international border. Viewing Taylor’s advance as an invasion of Mexican soil, the Mexican army crossed the Rio Grande and attacked the U.S. forces in Texas in April 1846. By mid-May the two nations were formally at war. The Mexican army was larger than the American army, but its leadership, training, and supplies were all inferior to those of the U.S. forces. Mexican gunpowder was notoriously weak, and cannon balls from their guns often just bounced slowly across battlefields where the American soldiers simply stepped out of the way. As a result, by January 1847, General Taylor had conquered California and the northern Mexican territories that would later make up much of the American southwest. But Taylor was reluctant to take the war into the heart of Mexico, and Polk instead turned to General Winfield Scott to finish the job. In March, Scott landed nearly 12,000 men on the beaches near Vera Cruz, Mexico, captured the town, and began to march inland to Mexico City. Flanking the Mexican defenses at Cerro Gordo Pass, Scott stabbed southward below Mexico City, taking the towns of Contreras and Churubusco. When a final attempt at peace negotiations failed in August, Scott advanced north on the Mexican capital. After Scott’s forces stormed the fortress at Chapultepec, the last significant Mexican resistance was eliminated. The next day, September 14, Scott marched his army into Mexico City and raised the American flag over the Mexican National Palace-the “Halls of Montezuma” later celebrated in the famous Marine’s Hymn. For the first time in U.S. history, the Stars and Stripes flew over a foreign capital.
1847 – A Marine Brigade leads U.S. forces that storm Chapultepec Castle near Mexico City, inspiring one line of the Marine Hymn.
1860 John J. Pershing (d.1948), aka “Black Jack,” was born in Laclede, Missouri. He led the campaign against Pancho Villa in Mexico and commanded the American Expeditionary Force in France during World War I.
1861 C.S.S. Patrick Henry. Commander John R. Tucker, exchanged fire with U.S.S. Savannah, Captain Hull, and U.S.S. Louisiana, Lieutenant Alexander Murray, off Newport News; shot on both sides fell short.
1862 Union soldiers find a copy of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s orders detailing the Confederates’ plan for the Antietam campaign near Frederick, Maryland. But Union General George B. McClellan was slow to act, and the advantage the intelligence provided was lost. On the morning of September 13, the 27th Indiana rested in a meadow outside of Frederick, Maryland, which had served as the site of a Confederate camp a few days before. Sergeant John Bloss and Corporal Barton W. Mitchell found a piece of paper wrapped around three cigars. The paper was addressed to Confederate General D.H. Hill. Its title read, “Special Order No. 191, Headquarters, Army of Northern Virginia.” Realizing that they had discovered a copy of the Confederate operation plan, Barton and Mitchell quickly passed it up the chain of command. By chance, the division adjutant general, Samuel Pittman, recognized the handwriting on the orders as that of a colleague from the prewar army, Robert Chilton, who was the adjutant general to Robert E. Lee. Pittman took the order to McClellan. The Union commander had spent the previous week mystified by Lee’s operations, but now the Confederate plan was clear. He reportedly gloated, “Here is a paper with which if I cannot whip Bobbie Lee, I will be willing to go home.” McClellan now knew that Lee’s forces were split into five parts and scattered over a 30-mile stretch, with the Potomac River in between. At least eight miles separated each piece of Lee’s army, and McClellan was just a dozen miles from the nearest Confederate unit at South Mountain. Bruce Catton, the noted Civil War historian, observed that no general in the war “was ever given so fair a chance to destroy the opposing army one piece at a time.” Yet McClellan squandered the opportunity. His initial jubilation was overtaken by his caution. He believed that Lee possessed a far greater number of troops than the Confederates actually had, despite the fact that the Maryland invasion resulted in a high rate of desertion among the Southerners. McClellan was also excruciatingly slow to respond to the information in the so-called Lost Order. He took 18 hours to set his army in motion, marching toward Turner’s Gap and Crampton’s Gap in South Mountain, a 50-mile long ridge that was part of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Lee, who was alerted to the approaching Federals, sent troops to plug the gaps, allowing him time to gather his scattered units.
1863 – The Loudoun County Rangers routed a company of Confederate cavalry at Catoctin Mountain in Virginia.
1864 Rear Admiral Farragut’s sailors continued to clear the main ship channel at Mobile Bay of torpedos such as the one that bad sunk U.S.S. Tecumseh on 5 August. He reported to Secretary Welles that 22 torpedos had been raised. He added: ” This part of the channel is now believed to be clear, for, though beyond doubt many more were originally anchored here, report says they have sunk over one hundred to the bottom.” Despite the Admiral’s efforts, Union ships would be destroyed in the vicinity of Mobile Bay by torpedoes in the months to come.
1867 – Gen. E.R.S. Canby ordered South Carolina courts to impanel blacks as jurors.
1881 – Ambrose Everett Burnside, US Union general, died at 57.
1898 – Hannibal Goodwin patents celluloid photographic film.
1900Filipino resistance fighters defeat a small American column in the Battle of Pulang Lupa, during the Philippine–American War. The engagement was fought between the forces of Colonel Maximo Abad and Devereux Shields. Shields’ defeat sent shock waves through the American high command. Aside from being one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans during the war, it was especially significant given its proximity to the upcoming election between President William McKinley and his anti-imperialist opponent William Jennings Bryan, the outcome of which many believed would determine the ultimate course of the war. Consequently, the defeat triggered a sharp response. Arthur MacArthur, Jr. sent Brig. Gen. Luther Hare with “orders to treat the entire male population over fifteen as potential enemies and to arrest as many as possible and hold them hostages until Abad surrendered.” Hare secured the release of Shields and his men. Maj. Frederick A. Smith continued the policy of destroying food and shelter in the interior of the island, and moving all civilians into the towns. Although Abad and most of his command continued to elude the American military, the civilian population was suffering for it, with many landowners and merchants joining the Federal Party, turning against Abad. These new tactics led to the surrender of Abad in April 1901.
1905 – U.S. warships headed to Nicaragua on behalf of American William Albers, who was accused of evading tobacco taxes.
1906 – Sailors and Marines from USS Denver land in Havana at the request of the Cuban government to preserve order during a revolution.
1918 – U.S. and French forces took St. Mihiel, France, in America’s first action as an expeditionary army.
1939 – Navy suspends transfers to the Fleet Reserve after 20 years service and retains men on active duty.
1939 The US ambassador to Poland, Anthony J. Drexel Biddle, Jr., reports that German bombers are attacking the civilian population. He says “they are releasing bombs they carry even when they are in no doubt as to the identity of their objectives.”
1942 – On Guadalcanal, the Japanese attacks intensify. The American forces hold them off with difficulty, aided by effective artillery support.
1943 On the Salerno beachhead, elements of the German 16th Panzer and 29th Panzergrenadier Divisions capture American-held Persano and penetrate the American line in several places. The possibility of isolating the British and American Corps arises as the Germans reach to within one mile of the beaches. Allied naval gunfire prevents further German penetrations. The US 6th Corps headquarters makes plans for evacuation. Elements of the US 82nd Airborne Division (General Ridgeway) are parachuted on to the beaches to stiffen the defenses.
1943 – A American battalion lands on Sagekarasa.
1944 – In continuing attacks, the US 3rd Army (part of US 12th Army Group) captures Neufchateau.
1944 American naval forces begin a preliminary bombardment of Peleliu and Angaur. Admiral Oldendorf is in command of the operation which involves 5 battleships, 9 cruisers and numerous destroyers. An escort carrier forces provides air support and minesweeping is carried out to clear the approach route to the islands.
1950 Task Force 77 struck Wolmi-do with naval gunfire in preparation for the amphibious assault against Inchon. Lieutenant David H. Swenson was killed aboard the destroyer USS Swenson when the North Koreans hit the ship with a two-gun salvo. Ironically, the ship was named after his uncle, Captain Lyman K. Swenson, who was killed in the South Pacific during World War II.
1950 – The 1st Provisional Marine Brigade disbanded and became part of the 1st Marine Division.
1950 – U.S. I Corps became operational at Taegu.
1951 – The U.S. Marine Corps conducted Operation “Windmill I,” the first mass helicopter resupply mission in military history.
1956 IBM introduced the Model 305 computer capable of storing 20 megabytes of data. Reynold B. Johnson (d.1998 at 92), IBM lab leader, developed a way to store computer data on a metal disk instead of on tape or drum. His Random Access Method of Accounting Control began the disk drive industry.
1961 – An unmanned Mercury capsule was orbited and recovered by NASA in a test for the first manned flight.
1964 Dissident South Vietnamese army officers attempt to overthrow General Nguyen Khan’s government in Saigon, calling their movement the People’s Council for the Salvation of the Nation. General Lam Van Phat, who had been dismissed as interior minister on September 3, and General Duong Van Duc, commander of 4th Corps, led the attempt. Government troops loyal to Khanh moved against the coup’s main base near Tan Son Nhut, but the final blow to the coup came when Air Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky sent air force planes to fly over the insurgent generals’ headquarters and threatened to bomb them if they did not surrender. This incident was part of the long-running political turbulence in South Vietnam that followed the assassination of former President Ngo Dinh Diem.
1968 The largest sustained operation inside the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) opens when U.S. and South Vietnamese infantry and armored troops, supported by planes, artillery, and U.S. Navy ships, move two miles into the buffer zone to relieve enemy pressure on Allied bases along the 40-mile stretch of South Vietnam’s northern frontier. The operation was also meant to prevent an anticipated offensive by two North Vietnamese divisions thought to be currently operating within the DMZ. On September 17, an additional 2,000 U.S. Marines were airlifted into the area and B-52 bombers, striking for the first time in a month, hit targets on both sides of the Ben Hai River, part of the demarcation between North and South Vietnam. Ten days later, an additional 4,000 U.S. Marines attacked into the buffer zone in a coordinated pincer movement designed to trap remaining communist forces. The operation achieved the desired objectives and resulted in 742 North Vietnamese killed; U.S. losses were 65 killed and 77 wounded.
1971State police and National Guardsmen storm New York’s Attica Prison to quell a prison revolt. At 9:46 a.m. tear gas was dropped into the yard and New York State Police troopers and soldiers from the New York National Guard opened fire non-stop for two minutes into the smoke. Among the weapons used by the troopers were shotguns, which led to the wounding and killing of hostages and inmates who were not resisting. Former prison officers were allowed to participate, a decision later called “inexcusable” by the commission established by Rockefeller to study the riot and the aftermath. By the time the facility was retaken, nine hostages and 29 inmates had been killed. A tenth hostage died on October 9, 1972, of gunshot wounds received during the assault. The final death toll from the riot also included the officer fatally injured at the start of the riot and four inmates who were subject to vigilante killings. Nine hostages died from gunfire by state troopers and soldiers. The New York State Special Commission on Attica wrote, “With the exception of Indian massacres in the late 19th century, the State Police assault which ended the four-day prison uprising was the bloodiest one-day encounter between Americans since the Civil War.”
1976 – The United States announced it would veto Vietnam’s UN bid.
1978 – The 1st flight of McDonnell Douglas F-18A Hornet.
1985 – Commander Middle East Force orders escort of Military Sealift Ships in Persian Gulf because of Iranian seizure of merchant vessels.
1990 – The 1st Battalion, 2d Marine Regiment embarked and arrived in Saudi Arabia in support of Desert Shield.
1993 – Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin shakes hands with Palestine Liberation Organization chairman Yasser Arafat at the White House after signing the Oslo Accords granting limited Palestinian autonomy.
1994 – Ulysses probe, a joint NAS ESA project, launched from teh Space Shuttle Discovery, passes the Sun’s south pole.
1995 With the threat of terrorism growing, small and medium-sized companies started buying kidnapping and ransom insurance to protect workers heading overseas to conduct business. According to a New York Times report from 1995, companies were choosing to cover all their employees, though in most cases even foreign-bound employees stood little chance of falling prey to kidnappers and extortionists.
1997 – In Bosnia municipal elections were held under NATO escort. There was a high voter turnout.
1997 A German military transport, a Soviet-made Tupelov-154 jet, was reported crashed with 24 people off the coast of Angola [Namibia]. A midair collision with a USAF C-141 Starlifter cargo plane was reported and the total dead reached 32. Poor communications and faulty regional traffic control were cited as the cause.
2000 With the US government all but abandoning its case against him, former Los Alamos scientist Wen Ho Lee pleaded guilty in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to a single count of mishandling nuclear secrets; he was then set free with an apology from U.S. District Judge James Parker, who said the government’s actions had “embarrassed our entire nation.”
2001 Pres. Bush asked Congress for powers to wage war against an unidentified enemy. Bush called the terrorist attacks in New York and Washington “the first war of the 21st century” as his administration labeled fugitive Osama bin Laden a prime suspect. The United States promised to wage all-out retaliation against those responsible and any regime that protected them. Jetliners returned to the nation’s skies for the first time in two days, carrying nervous passengers who faced strict new security measures.
2001 – The US requested that Pakistan grant air and land space for military actions in Afghanistan. US Special Forces arrived in Afghanistan.
2001 – The data flight recorder for United Flight 93 was found at the Pennsylvania crash site. In the Sep 11 terrorist attack, 18 hijackers were identified as ticketed passengers.
2001 – Civilian aircraft traffic resumes in the United States after the September 11 attacks.
2002 President Bush said it was “highly doubtful” that Saddam Hussein would comply with demands that he disarm and avoid a confrontation with the world community. And he mocked Democrats and other lawmakers who wanted UN action before a congressional vote on confronting Saddam.
2002 A top Iraqi official said Baghdad opposes the return of U.N. weapons inspectors and President Bush’s speech to the United Nations was “full of lies.” Iraq will attack Israel if it takes part in a U.S. strike against President Hussein’s government, an Iraqi minister said in published remarks.
2002 Foreign ministers of the U.N. Security Council’s permanent five nations said that Iraq’s refusal to obey past U.N. resolutions “is a serious matter and that Iraq must comply.” Russia, Europe and key Arab states piled pressure on Iraq on Friday to readmit U.N. weapons inspectors to avert possible U.S.-led military action.
2003 – Angry mourners swarmed Fallujah, Iraq, a day after eight Iraqi police were killed in a friendly fire incident involving U.S. troops; the U.S. military apologized for the deaths.
2003 – In the southern Philippines soldiers killed two suspected members of the Muslim extremist Abu Sayyaf group and seized pictures of al-Qaida chief Osama bin Laden and documents in Arabic language after storming a rebel camp.
2004 – US warplanes pounded a suspected hideout of al-Qaida-linked militants in the Sunni insurgent stronghold of Fallujah, killing 20 people including women and children.
2004 – Two Australians and two East Asians have been kidnapped in Iraq, said a statement purportedly from the Islamic Secret Army handed out in the Sunni Muslim insurgent bastion of Samarra.
2007Abdul Sattar Abu Risha was killed in a bomb attack in the city of Ramadi. He was an important U.S. ally because he led the “Anbar Awakening”, an alliance of Sunni Arab tribes that opposed al-Qaeda. The latter organization claimed responsibility for the attack. A statement posted on the Internet by the shadowy Islamic State of Iraq called Abu Risha “one of the dogs of Bush” and described Thursday’s killing as a “heroic operation that took over a month to prepare”.
2011A Taliban attack on the centre of the Afghan capital Kabul ends with 11 people dead. The United States Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta warned that the United States would retaliate against the Pakistan-based Haqqani network of terrorists that it believes was responsible.
2012Protestors breach the walls of the U.S. embassy compound in Sana’a, Yemen. Yemeni police fire warning shots in the air and four people are killed. The Egyptian ministry of health says 224 people are injured in demonstrations around the embassy in Cairo. In Kuwait, 500 people gather and chant near the embassy.
2012The U.S. deploys destroyers and surveillance drones to Libya to hunt for those responsible for the attack in Benghazi. The Libyan Deputy Interior minister says there were two parts in the attack – the second attack was on the safe house of which the location was previously leaked.
2012 – The US consulate in the suburbs of Berlin, Germany, is briefly evacuated due to suspicions over the contents of an envelope.
2013 – Taliban insurgents attack the United States consulate in Herat, Afghanistan, with two members of the Afghan National Police reported dead and about 20 civilians injured.

Congressional Medal of Honor Citations for Actions Taken This Day

Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 2d Ohio Cavalry. Place and date: Near Berryville, Va., 13 September 1864. Entered service at:——. Birth: Trumbull County, Ohio. Date of issue: 19 September 1864. Citation: Capture of the colors of the 8th South Carolina Infantry while engaged in a reconnaissance along the Berryville and Winchester Pike.

Rank and organization: Gunner’s Mate Third Class, U.S. Navy. Born: 17 February 1880, Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 531, 21 November 1900. Citation: For extraordinary heroism and gallantry while under fire of the enemy at El Pardo, Cebu, Philippine Islands, 12 and 13 September 1899.

G.O. No.: 40, 19 October 1909. Citation: Watertender, serving on board the U.S.S. Salem, for extraordinary heroism in the line of his profession on the occasion of the accident to one of the boilers of that vessel, 13 September 1909.

Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 21 October 1910, Pawnee, Okla. Appointed from: Illinois. Other Navy awards: Silver Star Medal. Citation: For extraordinary courage and heroic conduct above and beyond the call of duty as Commanding Officer of Company C, 1st Marine Raider Battalion, during the enemy Japanese attack on Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on 12-13 September 1942. Completely reorganized following the severe engagement of the night before, Maj. Bailey’s company, within an hour after taking its assigned position as reserve battalion between the main line and the coveted airport, was threatened on the right flank by the penetration of the enemy into a gap in the main line. In addition to repulsing this threat, while steadily improving his own desperately held position, he used every weapon at his command to cover the forced withdrawal of the main line before a hammering assault by superior enemy forces. After rendering invaluable service to the battalion commander in stemming the retreat, reorganizing the troops and extending the reverse position to the left, Maj. Bailey, despite a severe head wound, repeatedly led his troops in fierce hand-to-hand combat for a period of 10 hours. His great personal valor while exposed to constant and merciless enemy fire, and his indomitable fighting spirit inspired his troops to heights of heroic endeavor which enabled them to repulse the enemy and hold Henderson Field. He gallantly gave his life in the service of his country.

Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, U.S. Army, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Altavilla, Italy, 13 September 1943. Entered service at: Seattle, Wash. Birth: Clinton, Wash. G.O. No.: 73, 6 September 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Altavilla, Italy, 13 September 1943. When his company attacked a German position on Hill 424, the first platoon, led by 1st Lt. Bjorklund, moved forward on the right flank to the slope of the hill where it was pinned down by a heavy concentration of machinegun and rifle fire. Ordering his men to give covering fire, with only 3 hand grenades, he crept and crawled forward to a German machinegun position located on a terrace along the forward slope. Approaching within a few yards of the position, and while continuously exposed to enemy fire, he hurled 1 grenade into the nest, destroyed the gun and killed 3 Germans. Discovering a second machinegun 20 yards to the right on a higher terrace, he moved under intense enemy fire to a point within a few yards and threw a second grenade into this position, destroying it and killing 2 more Germans. The first platoon was then able to advance 150 yards further up the slope to the crest of the hill, but was again stopped by the fire from a heavy enemy mortar on the reverse slope. 1st Lt. Bjorklund located the mortar and worked his way under little cover to within 10 yards of its position and threw his third grenade, destroying the mortar, killing 2 of the Germans, and forcing the remaining 3 to flee. His actions permitted the platoon to take its objective.

Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Army, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Altavilla, Italy, 13 September 1943. Entered service at: Pueblo, Colo. Birth: Pueblo, Colo. G.O. No.: 57, 20 July 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty in action with the enemy near Altavilla, Italy, 13 September 1943. When Company I attacked an enemy-held position on Hill 424, the 3d Platoon, in which Pvt. Crawford was a squad scout, attacked as base platoon for the company. After reaching the crest of the hill, the platoon was pinned down by intense enemy machinegun and small-arms fire. Locating 1 of these guns, which was dug in on a terrace on his immediate front, Pvt. Crawford, without orders and on his own initiative, moved over the hill under enemy fire to a point within a few yards of the gun emplacement and single-handedly destroyed the machinegun and killed 3 of the crew with a hand grenade, thus enabling his platoon to continue its advance. When the platoon, after reaching the crest, was once more delayed by enemy fire, Pvt. Crawford again, in the face of intense fire, advanced directly to the front midway between 2 hostile machinegun nests located on a higher terrace and emplaced in a small ravine. Moving first to the left, with a hand grenade he destroyed 1 gun emplacement and killed the crew; he then worked his way, under continuous fire, to the other and with 1 grenade and the use of his rifle, killed 1 enemy and forced the remainder to flee. Seizing the enemy machinegun, he fired on the withdrawing Germans and facilitated his company’s advance.

Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Company E, 157th Infantry, 45th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Grammont, France, 12-13 September 1944. Entered service at: Brooklyn, N.Y. Birth: Hume, N.Y. G.O. No: 32, 23 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty on the night of 1213 September 1944, near Grammont, France. In the darkness of early morning, 2d Lt. Fisher was leading a platoon of Company E, 157th Infantry, in single column to the attack of a strongly defended hill position. At 2:30 A.M., the forward elements were brought under enemy machinegun fire from a distance of not more than 20 yards. Working his way alone to within 20 feet of the gun emplacement, he opened fire with his carbine and killed the entire guncrew. A few minutes after the advance was resumed, heavy machinegun fire was encountered from the left flank. Again crawling forward alone under withering fire, he blasted the gun and crew from their positions with hand grenades. After a halt to replenish ammunition, the advance was again resumed and continued for 1 hour before being stopped by intense machinegun and rifle fire. Through the courageous and skillful leadership of 2d Lt. Fisher, the pocket of determined enemy resistance was rapidly obliterated. Spotting an emplaced machine pistol a short time later, with 1 of his men he moved forward and destroyed the position. As the advance continued the fire fight became more intense. When a bypassed German climbed from his foxhole and attempted to tear an Ml rifle from the hands of 1 of his men, 2d Lt. Fisher whirled and killed the enemy with a burst from his carbine. About 30 minutes later the platoon came under the heavy fire of machineguns from across an open field. 2d Lt. Fisher, disregarding the terrific fire, moved across the field with no cover or concealment to within range, knocked the gun from the position and killed or wounded the crew. Still under heavy fire he returned to his platoon and continued the advance. Once again heavy fire was encountered from a machinegun directly in front. Calling for hand grenades, he found only 2 remaining in the entire platoon. Pulling the pins and carrying a grenade in each hand, he crawled toward the gun emplacement, moving across areas devoid of cover and under intense fire to within 15 yards when he threw the grenades, demolished the gun and killed the guncrew. With ammunition low and daybreak near, he ordered his men to dig in and hold the ground already won. Under constant fire from the front and from both flanks, he moved among them directing the preparations for the defense. Shortly after the ammunition supply was replenished, the Germans launched a last determined effort against the depleted group. Attacked by superior numbers from the front, right, and left flank, and even from the rear, the platoon, in bitter hand-to-hand engagements drove back the enemy at every point. Wounded in both feet by close-range machine pistol fire early in the battle, 2d Lt. Fisher refused medical attention. Unable to walk, he crawled from man to man encouraging them and checking each position. Only after the fighting had subsided did 2d Lt. Fisher crawl 300 yards to the aid station from which he was evacuated. His extraordinary heroism, magnificent valor, and aggressive determination in the face of pointblank enemy fire is an inspiration to his organization and reflects the finest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.

Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Army, 175th Infantry, 29th Infantry Division. Place and date: Brest, Brittany, France, 13 September 1944. Entered service at: Spring City, Pa. Birth: Spring City, Pa. G.O. No.: 31, 17 April 1945. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. On 13 September 1944, in Brittany, France, the 2d Battalion in its attack on the fortified city of Brest was held up by a strongly defended enemy position which had prevented its advance despite repeated attacks extending over a 3-day period. Finally, Company F advanced to within several hundred yards of the enemy position but was again halted by intense fire. Realizing that the position must be neutralized without delay, S/Sgt. Hallman ordered his squad to cover his movements with fire while he advanced alone to a point from which he could make the assault. Without hesitating, S/Sgt. Hallman leaped over a hedgerow into a sunken road, the central point of the German defenses which was known to contain an enemy machinegun position and at least 30 enemy riflemen. Firing his carbine and hurling grenades, S/Sgt. Hallman, unassisted, killed or wounded 4 of the enemy, then ordered the remainder to surrender. Immediately, 12 of the enemy surrendered and the position was shortly secured by the remainder of his company. Seeing the surrender of this position, about 75 of the enemy in the vicinity surrendered, yielding a defensive organization which the battalion with heavy supporting fires had been unable to take. This single heroic act on the part of S/Sgt. Hallman resulted in the immediate advance of the entire battalion for a distance of 2,000 yards to a position from which Fort Keranroux was captured later the same day. S/Sgt. Hallman’s fighting determination and intrepidity in battle exemplify the highest tradition of the U.S. Armed Forces.

Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company L, 143d Infantry, 36th Infantry Division. Place and date: Near Altavilla, Italy, 13 September 1943. Entered service at: Pittsburgh, Pa. Birth: Pittsburgh, Pa. G.O. No.: 13, 18 February 1944. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at risk of life above and beyond the call of duty. On 13 September 1943, near Altavilla, Italy, Cpl. Kelly voluntarily joined a patrol which located and neutralized enemy machinegun positions. After this hazardous duty he volunteered to establish contact with a battalion of U.S. infantry which was believed to be located on Hill 315, a mile distant. He traveled over a route commanded by enemy observation and under sniper, mortar, and artillery fire; and later he returned with the correct information that the enemy occupied Hill 315 in organized positions. Immediately thereafter Cpl. Kelly, again a volunteer patrol member, assisted materially in the destruction of 2 enemy machinegun nests under conditions requiring great skill and courage. Having effectively fired his weapon until all the ammunition was exhausted, he secured permission to obtain more at an ammunition dump. Arriving at the dump, which was located near a storehouse on the extreme flank of his regiment’s position, Cpl. Kelly found that the Germans were attacking ferociously at this point. He obtained his ammunition and was given the mission of protecting the rear of the storehouse. He held his position throughout the night. The following morning the enemy attack was resumed. Cpl. Kelly took a position at an open window of the storehouse. One machine gunner had been killed at this position and several other soldiers wounded. Cpl. Kelly delivered continuous aimed and effective fire upon the enemy with his automatic rifle until the weapon locked from overheating. Finding another automatic rifle, he again directed effective fire upon the enemy until this weapon also locked. At this critical point, with the enemy threatening to overrun the position, Cpl. Kelly picked up 60mm. mortar shells, pulled the safety pins, and used the shells as grenades, killing at least 5 of the enemy. When it became imperative that the house be evacuated, Cpl. Kelly, despite his sergeant’s injunctions, volunteered to hold the position until the remainder of the detachment could withdraw. As the detachment moved out, Cpl. Kelly was observed deliberately loading and firing a rocket launcher from the window. He was successful in covering the withdrawal of the unit, and later in joining his own organization. Cpl. Kelly’s fighting determination and intrepidity in battle exemplify the highest traditions of the U.S. Armed Forces.

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