August 5

5 August

1664After days of negotiation, the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam surrendered to the British, who would rename it New York. The citizens of New Amsterdam petitioned Peter Stuyvesant to surrender to the English. The “Articles of Capitulation” guaranteed free trade, religious liberty and a form of local representation.
1815 – A peace treaty with Tripoli–which followed treaties with Algeria and Tunis–brought an end to the Barbary Wars.
1832 – Frigate Potomac is first U.S. Navy ship to entertain royalty, King and Queen of Sandwich Islands, Honolulu.
1861 – The government handed down the first Income Tax as part of the Revenue Act of 1861. The tax, 3% which was levied on incomes over $800, was designed to help fund the Civil War. However, the measure was short-lived, as the government rescinded it in 1872.
1861 – US Army abolished flogging.
1862 – In an indecisive battle on the Mississippi River, the Confederates gain some breathing room after driving a Union force back into Baton Rouge from the north.
1863U.S.S. Commodore Barney, Acting Lieutenant Samuel Hose, was severely damaged when a 1,000-pound electric torpedo was exploded near her above Dutch Gap, Virginia. The explosion, reported Captain Guert Gansevoort, senior officer present, produced “a lively concussion” and washed the decks ‘with the agitated water.” “Some 20 men,” he added, “Were either swept or jumped overboard, two of whom are missing and may have been drowned.” Had the anxious Confederate torpedoman waited another moment to close the electrical circuit, Commodore Barney surely would have been destroyed. The incident took place during a joint Army-Navy reconnaissance of the James River which had begun the previous day. “This explosion…,” wrote Lieutenant Hunter Davidson, CSN, in charge of the Submarine Battery Service, “effectively arrested their progress up the river. . . ” On 6 August U.S.S. Sangamon, Cohasset, and Com-modore Barney were taken under fire by Confederate shore artillery’ and Commodore Barney was again disabled, this time by a shot through the boilers. Returning downstream, the expedition was subjected to a heavy shorefire, Commodore Barney receiving more than 30 hits.
1863A detachment of Marines arrived at Charleston harbor to augment Union forces. Rear Admiral Dahlgren quickly cut the number of Marines on board the ships of his squadron to a minimum and sent the resulting total of some 500 Marines, under Major Jacob Zeilin, ashore on Morris Island. Dahlgren ordered that the Marines be ready “to move on instant notice; rapidity of movement is one of the greatest elements of military power.
1864Rear Admiral Farragut took his squadron of 18 ships, including four monitors, against the heavy Confederate defenses of Mobile Bay. Soon after 6 a.m., the Union ships crossed the bar and moved into the bay. The monitors Tecumseh, Manhattan, Winnebago, and Chickasaw formed a column to starboard of the wooden ships in order to take most of the fire from Fort Morgan, which they had to pass at close range. The seven smaller wooden ships were lashed to tile port side of the larger wooden screw steamers, as in the passage of Port Hudson, Mississippi River. Shortly before 7 o’clock, Tecumseh, Commander T.A.M. Craven, opened fire on Fort Morgan. The action quickly became general. The Confederate squadron under Admiral Buchanan, including the heavy ram Tennessee (6 guns) and the smaller ships Gaines (6 guns), Selma (4 guns), and Morgan (6 guns), moved out to engage the attackers. Craven headed Tecumseh straight at Tennessee, bent on engaging her at once. Suddenly, a terrific explosion rocked the Union monitor. She careened violently and went down in seconds, the victim of one of the much-feared torpedoes laid by the Confederates for harbor defense. Amidst the confusion below decks as men struggled to escape the sinking ship, Craven and the pilot, John Collins, arrived at the foot of the ladder leading to the main deck. The captain stepped back. “After you, pilot,” he said. Collins was saved, but there was no afterwards for the heroic Craven. He and some 90 officers and men of Tecumseh’s crew of 114 went down with the ship. Captain Alden called them “intrepid pioneers of that death-strewed path.” Alden, in Brooklyn, was to Tecumseh’s port when the disaster occurred; the heavy steamer stopped and began backing to clear “a row of suspecious-looking buoys” directly under Brooklyn’s bow. The entire line of wooden vessels was drifting into confusion immediately under the guns of Fort Morgan. Farragut, lashed in the rigging to observe the action over the smoke billowing from the guns, acted promptly and resolutely, characteristic of a great leader who in war must constantly meet emergencies fraught with danger. The only course was the boldest through the torpedo field. “Damn the torpedoes,” he ordered; “full speed ahead ” (Flag Lieutenant John C. Watson later recalled that Farragut’s exact words were: “Damn the torpedoes! Full speed ahead, Drayton! Hard astarboard; ring four bells! Eight bells! Sixteen bells!”) His flagship Hartford s wept past Brooklyn into the rows of torpedoes; the fleet followed. The torpedoes were heard bumping against the hulls but none exploded. The Union force steamed into the bay. Hardly past one hazard, Farragut was immediately faced with another: Buchanan attempted to ram Hartford with Tennessee. The Union ship slipped by her slower, clumsier antagonist, returning her fire but also being raked by the fire of gunboat C.S.S. Selma, Lieutenant Peter U. Murphey. Wooden double-ender U.S.S. Metacomet, Lieutenant Commander Jouett, engaged Selma and, though sustaining considerable damage, compelled her to strike her colors shortly after 9 a.m. Meanwhile, Tennessee also attempted in vain to ram Brooklyn. C.S.S. Gaines, Lieu-tenant John W. Bennett, advanced to engage the Union ships as they entered the bay, but she suffered a steering casualty early in the action. “. . . subjected to a very heavy concentrated fire from the Hartford, Richmond, and others at short range . . . , Bennett soon found his command in a sinking condition. He ran her aground near Fort Morgan and salvaged most of the ammuni-tion and small arms before she settled in two fathoms. C.S.S. Morgan, Commander George W. Harrison, briefly engaged Metacomet to assist Selma prior to her surrender, but as the action took place at high speed, Morgan could not maintain her position and faced the possibility of being cut off and captured by two Union ships. Harrison determined to take her under Fort Morgan’s guns and later he saved her by boldly running the gauntlet of Federal ships to Mobile. Meanwhile, 300-ton side-wheeler U.S.S. Philippi, Acting Master James T. Seaver, “wishing to be of assistance to the fleet in case any vessels were disabled,” grounded near Fort Morgan attempting to get into the bay. The fort’s heavy guns quickly found the range and riddled Philippi with shot and shell, forcing Seaver and his crew to abandon ship. A boat crew from C.S.S. Morgan completed her destruction by setting her afire. The Union fleet, having steamed up into the bay, anchored briefly. Buchanan heroically carried the fight to his powerful opponents alone. Farragut reported: “I was not long in comprehending his intention to be the destruction of the flagship. The monitors and such of the wooden vessels as I thought best adapted for the purpose were immediately ordered to attack the ram, not only with their guns, but bows on at full speed, and then began one of the fiercest naval combats on record.” For more than an hour the titanic battle raged. Steam sloop of war Monongahela struck Tennessee a heavy blow but succeeded only in damaging herself. Lackawanna rammed into the Confederate ship at full speed but, said Farragut, “the only perceptible effect on the ram was to give her a heavy list.” A shot from Manhattan’s 15-inch gun, however, made a greater impression on those on board Tennessee. Lieutenant Wharton, CSN, reported: “The Monongahela was hardly clear of us when a hideous-looking monster came creeping up on our Port side, whose slowly revolving turret revealed the cavernous depths of a mammoth gun. ‘Stand clear of the Port side!’ I shouted. A moment after a thundrous report shook us all, while a blast of dense, sulpherous smoke covered our port-holes, and 440 pounds of iron, impelled by sixty pounds of powder, admitted daylight through our side, where, before it struck us, there had been over two feet of solid wood, covered with five inches of solid iron. This was the only 15-inch shot that hit us fair. It did not come through; the inside netting caught the splinters, and there were no casualties from it. I was glad to find myself alive after that shot.” Hartford struck a glancing blow and poured a broadside into Tennessee from a distance of ten feet Chickasaw pounded the ram with heavy shot; steam sloops Lackawanna and Hartford had collided, but had regained position and, with Ossipee and Monongahela, were preparing to run down Buchanan’s ship. The intrepid Confederate Admiral had been seriously wounded and relinquished command to Commander James D. Johnston. The rain of shells knocked out the ironclad’s steering. Unable to maneuver and taking on water, Tennessee struggled on against her overwhelmingly superior foes despite the terrible cannonade that pounded her mercilessly. Ultimately, Buchannan and Johnston concurred that Tennessee must surrender to prevent loss of life to no fruitful end. At 10 o’clock a white flag was hoisted. Farragut acknowledged the tenacity and ability with which the Confederate seamen had fought: “During this contest with the rebel gunboats and Tennessee . . . we lost many more men than from the fire of the batteries of Fort Morgan.”
1858After several unsuccessful attempts, the first telegraph line across the Atlantic Ocean is completed, a feat accomplished largely through the efforts of American merchant Cyrus West Field. The telegraph was first developed by Samuel F. B. Morse, an artist-turned-inventor who conceived of the idea of the electric telegraph in 1832. Several European inventors had proposed such a device, but Morse worked independently and by the mid 1830s had built a working telegraph instrument. In the late 1830s, he perfected Morse Code, a set of signals that could represent language in telegraph messages. In May 1844, Morse inaugurated the world’s first commercial telegraph line with the message “What hath God wrought,” sent from the U.S. Capitol to a railroad station in Baltimore. Within a decade, more than 20,000 miles of telegraph cable crisscrossed the country. The rapid communication it made possible greatly aided American expansion, making railroad travel safer as it provided a boost to business conducted across the great distances of a growing United States. In 1854, Cyrus West Field conceived the idea of the telegraph cable and secured a charter to lay a well-insulated line across the floor of the Atlantic Ocean. Obtaining the aid of British and American naval ships, he made four unsuccessful attempts, beginning in 1857. In July 1858, four British and American vessels–the Agamemnon, the Valorous, the Niagara, and the Gorgon–met in mid-ocean for the fifth attempt. On July 29, the Niagara and the Gorgon, with their load of cable, departed for Trinity Bay, Newfoundland, while the Agamemnon and the Valorous embarked for Valentia, Ireland. By August 5, the cable had been successfully laid, stretching nearly 2,000 miles across the Atlantic at a depth often of more than two miles. On August 16, President James Buchanan and Queen Victoria exchanged formal introductory and complimentary messages. Unfortunately, the cable proved weak and the current insufficient and by the beginning of September had ceased functioning. Field later raised new funds and made new arrangements. In 1866, the British ship Great Eastern succeeded in laying the first permanent telegraph line across the Atlantic Ocean. Cyrus West Field was the object of much praise on both sides of the Atlantic for his persistence in accomplishing what many thought to be an impossible undertaking. He later promoted other oceanic cables, including telegraph lines that stretched from Hawaii to Asia and Australia.
1882 – The first US Navy steel warships (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago and Dolphin), were authorized by Congress, beginning the “New Navy.” Subsequently known as the A, B, C, D ships, they were built at Chester, Pennsylvania. Dolphin was commissioned first in 1885, followed by Atlanta (1886), Boston (1887), and Chicago (1889). Note: all four ships were designed with the ability to rig sails on the mast as a backup propulsion system. Along with the additional steel warship USS Yorktown, the ships were established as the “Squadron of Evolution,” operating in the Atlantic and Mediterranean through the early 1890s.
1884 – The cornerstone for the Statue of Liberty was laid on Bedloe’s Island in New York Harbor.
1889 – The U.S. Life-Saving Service issued a circular prescribing an appropriate outfit for the keepers and surfmen. This was the first time that uniforms were required in the Service.
1892 – Harriet Tubman received a pension from Congress for her work as a nurse, spy and scout during the Civil War.
1914 – Austria-Hungary declares war on Russia at 1200 hours.
1917The entire membership of the National Guard was drafted into federal service for World War I. After war was declared in April, 1917, National Guard units were first called into federal service by President Wilson under the militia clause of the Constitution. Most of these units mobilized at their local armories or in state military camps, and they began actively recruiting up to full wartime strength while conducting local patrols to defend against suspected German saboteurs. Guardsmen could not be deployed overseas as militia, however, since the Constitution stipulated that the militia could only be used to “execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection, and repel invasions.” To circumvent this restriction, the Army’s Judge Advocate General determined that it would be necessary to draft each Guardsman into federal service, thus severing his ties to the state militia and freeing him for service overseas. Just over 379,000 Guardsmen were drafted on August 5, 1917, more then doubling the size of the U.S. Army with the stroke of a pen. Despite the fact that the military would swell to over 4 million men during the war, the brunt of the fighting in the trenches in France would be borne by the Guard. All 18 Guard divisions served overseas as part of the 43 division American Expeditionary Forces; 12 of the 29 divisions that saw combat were from the Guard (the rest of the divisions were broken up and the men used as replacements).
1918 – U.S.A. Man-power Bill introduced into Congress; military age from 18 to 45.
1921 – Yangtze River Patrol Force established as command under Asiatic Fleet.
1930 – Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon, was born in Ohio.
1935 – Congress passed the Anti-Smuggling Act, which broadened the jurisdiction of Coast Guard.
1944Elements of US 8th Corps (part of US 3rd Army) take Vannes. Other elements attack toward St. Malo and Brest. The US 15th Corps (also part of US 3rd Army) is advancing southeast from the Selune River, reaching Mayenne and Laval. To the left, US 7th Corps (part of US 1st Army) is advancing beyond Mortain.
1945 – On Tinian, at about 0210 hours, seven American aircraft take off for Japan. One of the aircraft is the specially modified B-29 Superfortress — the Enola Gay — carrying the “Little Boy” atomic bomb and heading for Hiroshima.
1945Aircraft from the US 5th and 7th Air Forces, based in Okinawa, raid Tarumizu in the south. About 325 planes take part in the attack. Another 12 Japanese cities have leaflets dropped on them by B-29 bombers, warning of coming raids. During the night, American bombers strike Imabari, Ube, Mayobashi, Saga, Nishinomiya and Mikage, fulfulling the threat made by leaflet drops.
1950 – The USS Philippine Sea arrived in Korean waters – the second carrier to enter the war.
1950 – Major Kenneth L. Reusser was awarded a gold star in lieu of a second Navy Cross and became the first Marine to be decorated for valor during the Korean War.
1951 – The United Nations Command suspended armistice talks with the North Koreans when armed troops are spotted in neutral areas.
1952 – In LA, Ca., 14 Communist leaders were convicted of conspiring to overthrow the US government. 6 of the defendants were from SF, one was from Oakland.
1952 – USAF Major Robinson Risner scored his first aerial victory of the Korean War. He later became a POW during the Vietnam War and retired as a brigadier general.
1953 – Exchange of prisoners of war of Korean Conflict (Operation Big Switch) begins.
1963Representatives of the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain sign the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, which prohibited the testing of nuclear weapons in outer space, underwater, or in the atmosphere. The treaty was hailed as an important first step toward the control of nuclear weapons. Discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning a ban on nuclear testing began in the mid-1950s. Officials from both nations came to believe that the nuclear arms race was reaching a dangerous level. In addition, public protest against the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons was gaining strength. Nevertheless, talks between the two nations (later joined by Great Britain) dragged on for years, usually collapsing when the issue of verification was raised. The Americans and British wanted on-site inspections, something the Soviets vehemently opposed. In 1960, the three sides seemed close to an agreement, but the downing of an American spy plan over the Soviet Union in May brought negotiations to an end. The Cuban Missile Crisis provided a major impetus for reinvigorating the talks in October 1962. The Soviets attempted to install nuclear-capable missiles in Cuba, bringing the Soviet Union and the United States to the brink of a nuclear war. Cooler heads prevailed and the crisis passed, but the other possible scenarios were not lost on U.S. and Russian officials. In June 1963, the test ban negotiations resumed, with compromises from all sides. On August 5, British, American, and Russian representatives signed the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. France and China were asked to join the agreement but refused. The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was a small but significant step toward the control of nuclear weapons. In the years to come, discussions between the United States and the Soviet Union grew to include limits on many nuclear weapons and the elimination of others.
1964F-8 Crusaders, A-1 Skyraiders, and A-4 Skyhawks, from the carriers USS Ticonderoga and USS Constellation stationed in the South China Sea, fly 64 sorties against North Vietnamese coastal targets as part of Operation Pierce Arrow in retaliation for the Tonkin Gulf incidents of August 2 and 4. The U.S. warplanes destroyed or damaged 25 North Vietnamese PT boats (claimed by U.S. officials to be about one-half of the North Vietnamese Navy) at bases at Hon Gai, Loc Ghao, Phuc Loi, and Quang Khe; destroyed seven anti-aircraft installations at Vinh; and severely damaged an oil storage depot at Phuc Loi. Two U.S. planes were shot down. One pilot, Lieutenant j.g. (or “junior grade”) Everett Alvarez, parachuted to safety, but broke his back in the process and was taken prisoner by the North Vietnamese. He was the first of some 600 U.S. airmen who would be captured during the war and not released until the cease-fire agreement was signed in 1973.
1967 – Operation Coronado III begins in Rung Sat Zone, Vietnam.
1969The U.S. space probe Mariner 7 flew by Mars, sending back photographs and scientific data. It returned 127 images of the South Polar icecap and southern hemisphere. Mariner 6 also flew past Mars this year and returned 75 images of the Martian equator along with the surface temperature, atmospheric pressure and composition.
1974 – President Richard Nixon admitted that he ordered a cover-up of the Watergate break-in for political as well as national security reasons. He was forced to release tapes that proved he had ordered a cover-up, which became know as the “smoking gun.”
1974Congress places a $1 billion ceiling on military aid to South Vietnam for fiscal year 1974. This figure was trimmed further to $700 million by August 11. Military aid to South Vietnam in fiscal year 1973 was $2.8 billion; in 1975 it would be cut to $300 million. Once aid was cut, it took the North Vietnamese only 55 days to defeat the South Vietnamese forces when they launched their final offensive in 1975.
1986 – US Senate voted for the SDI-project, better known as Star Wars.
1987 – President Reagan announced his administration had reached a “general agreement” with leaders of Congress on a new Central America peace plan. Nicaraguan President Daniel Ortega offered to discuss the U.S. proposal.
1990 – An angry President Bush again denounced the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, telling reporters, “This will not stand. This will not stand, this aggression against Kuwait.”
1990 – Navy and Marine Task Force (USS Saipan, USS Ponce, and USS Sumter) begin evacuation of U.S. citizens and foreign nationals from Liberia during civil war.
1991Democratic congressional leaders formally launched an investigation into whether the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign had secretly conspired with Iran to delay release of American hostages until after the presidential election. A task force later concluded there was “no credible evidence” of such a deal.
1993 – Three GIs are WIA in mortar/RPG attacks in Mogadishu.
1995 – Secretary of State Warren Christopher arrived in Hanoi, Vietnam, to “build a bridge of cooperation.” Christopher was the first US secretary of state to visit Vietnam since the war and the first ever to go to Hanoi.
1996 – US Pres. Clinton signed the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act. It held that foreign companies with investments of more than $40 million in the oil and gas sectors of these nations to be subject to US imposed sanctions.
1997 – Ramzi Yousef, mastermind of world trade center bombing, went on trial.
1998In protest against economic sanctions imposed on Iraq, President Saddam Hussein freezes cooperation with UN weapons inspectors. U.N. weapons inspectors have been searching suspected weapons sites in Iraq since 1991 in an attempt to eliminate Iraq’s weapons of mass destruction.
2001 – The spacecraft Galileo flew as close as 120 miles above Io’s north pole and captured wisps of volcanic gas largely composed of sulfur dioxide.
2002 – The coral-encrusted gun turret of the Civil War ironclad USS Monitor was raised from the floor of the Atlantic, nearly 140 years after the historic warship sank during a storm.
2002 – The U.S. energy secretary, Spencer Abraham, urges Britain and other allies to emulate the Americans in building up oil reserves to help prevent global economic disruption in the event of war in the Middle East.
2003A powerful car bomb exploded in an apparent suicide attack outside the Marriott hotel in downtown Jakarta, killing 10 people and wounding 149, including two Americans. The head of Asmar Latin Sani (28), the suicide bomber, landed on the 5th floor of the hotel.
2004Shiite cleric Muqtada al-Sadr called on his supporters to rise against US-led security forces. Fighting quickly spread to other Shiite areas, threatening a shaky two-month-old truce. Insurgents blew up a bomb in a minibus and opened fire on a crowd outside a police station south of Baghdad, killing at least five people and wounding 21.
2005 – The US military begins a major offensive in Anbar Province in Western Iraq.
2013In the culmination of a seige on a Syrian Air base that had lasted just over a year, a final rebel assault, led by the jihadist Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIS) group, was launched. By this point, 70 government soldiers had remained, holding out in a small section of the complex. The attack started when two foreign suicide bombers, one of them a Saudi, drove an armored personnel carrier right up to the airport’s command center and blew themselves up, destroying the building and killing or scattering the defenders. Scattered fighting continued, however, by the morning of the next day, rebel forces had full control of the airport. During the final battle, 32 government soldiers and at least 19 rebels were killed. According to the insurgents on the morning of the final attack, 10 soldiers defected to the rebels and claimed to had attempted but failed to kill the base commander, who was later captured as he attempted to retreat with his men.
2014 – An IS offensive in the Sinjar area of northern Iraq had forced 30,000–50,000 Yazidis to flee into the mountains fearing they would be killed by the IS. They had been threatened with death if they refused conversion to Islam. A UN representative said that “a humanitarian tragedy is unfolding in Sinjar”.

Congressional Medal of Honor Citations for Actions Taken This Day

ATKINSON, THOMAS E.
Rank and organization: Yeoman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1824, Salem, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond, Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864; commended for coolness and energy in supplying the rifle ammunition, which was under his sole charge, in the action in Mobile Bay on the morning of 5 August 1964. He was a petty officer on board the U.S. Frigate Congress in 1842-46; was present and assisted in capturing the whole of the Buenos Ayrean fleet by that vessel off Montevideo; joined the Richmond in September 1860; was in the action with Fort McRea, the Head of the Passes of the Mississippi, Forts Jackson and St. Philip, the Chalmettes, the rebel ironclads and gunboats below New Orleans, Vicksburg, Port Hudson, and at the surrender of New Orleans.

AVERY, JAMES
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1825, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Metacomet. As a member of the boat’s crew which went to the rescue of the U.S. monitor Tecumseh when that vessel was struck by a torpedo in passing the enemy forts in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864, S/man Avery braved the enemy fire which was said by the admiral to be “one of the most galling” he had ever seen, and aided in rescuing from death 10 of the crew of the Tecumseh, eliciting the admiration of both friend and foe.

BAKER, CHARLES
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1809, Georgetown, D.C., Entered service at: New York, N.Y. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Metacomet. As a member of the boat’s crew which went to the rescue of the U.S. monitor Tecumseh when that vessel was struck by a torpedo in passing the enemy forts in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864, Q.G. Baker braved the enemy fire which was said by the admiral to be “one of the most galling” he had ever seen, and aided in rescuing from death 10 of the crew of the Tecumseh, eliciting the admiration of both friend and foe.

BLAGHEEN, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Ship’s Cook, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Stationed in the immediate vicinity of the shell whips which were twice cleared of men by bursting shells, Blagheen remained steadfast at his post and performed his duties in the powder division throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

BRAZELL, JOHN
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Richmond in the action at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864, where he was recommended for coolness and good conduct as a gun captain during that engagement which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the destruction of Fort Morgan. Brazell served gallantly throughout the actions with Forts Jackson and St. Philip, the Chalmettes, batteries below Vicksburg, and was present at the surrender of New Orleans while on board the U.S.S. Brooklyn.

BROWN, JOHN
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, Scotland, Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Brown fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

BROWN, ROBERT
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1830, Norway. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond in action at Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864. Cool and courageous at his station throughout the prolonged action. Brown rendered gallant service as his vessel trained her guns on Fort Morgan and on ships of the Confederacy despite extremely heavy return fire. He participated in the actions at Forts Jackson and St. Philip, with the Chalmette batteries, at the surrender of New Orleans and in the attacks on batteries below Vicksburg.

BROWN, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864. Stationed in the immediate vicinity of the shell whips which were twice cleared of men by bursting shells, Brown remained steadfast at his post and performed his duties in the powder division throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

BROWN, WILSON
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Natchez, Miss. Accredited to: Mississippi. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864. Knocked unconscious into the hold of the ship when an enemy shellburst fatally wounded a man on the ladder above him, Brown, upon regaining consciousness, promptly returned to the shell whip on the berth deck and zealously continued to perform his duties although 4 of the 6 men at this station had been either killed or wounded by the enemy’s terrific fire.

BURNS, JOHN M.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Hudson, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Although severely wounded and sent below under the surgeon’s charge, Burns promptly returned to his station and assisted the powder division throughout the prolonged action which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of Fort Morgan.

CARR, WILLIAM M.
Rank and organization: Master-at-Arms, U.S. Navy. Birth: Baltimore, Md. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Carr performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the successful attacks carried out on Fort Morgan.

CASSIDY, MICHAEL
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Displaying great coolness and exemplary behavior as first sponger of a gun, Cassidy, by his coolness under fire, received the applause of his officers and the guncrew throughout the action which resulted in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee and in the destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

CHANDLER, JAMES B.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Cool and courageous although he had just come off the sick list, Chandler rendered gallant service throughout the prolonged action as his ship maintained accurate fire against Fort Morgan and ships of the Confederacy despite extremely heavy return fire. He participated in the actions at Forts Jackson and St. Philip, with the Chalmette batteries, at the surrender of New Orleans and in the attacks on batteries below Vicksburg.

CHAPUT, LOUIS G.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Canada. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the rebel ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Severely wounded, Chaput remained at his gun until relieved, reported to the surgeon and returned to his gun until the action was over. He was then carried below following the action which resulted in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee and in destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

COOPER, JOHN
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Second award. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Cooper fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

CRIPPS, THOMAS
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837 Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Cripps fought his gun with skill and courage throughout a furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

CRONIN, CORNELIUS
Rank and organization: Chief Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Michigan. Accredited to: Michigan. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond in action at Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864. Cool and vigilant at his station throughout the prolonged action, Cronin watched for signals and skillfully steered the ship as she trained her guns on Fort Morgan and on ships of the Confederacy despite extremely heavy return fire. He participated in the actions at Forts Jackson and St. Philip, with the Chalmette batteries, at the surrender of New Orleans, and in the attacks on batteries below Vicksburg.

CURTIS, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 9th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Baton Rouge, La., 5 August 1862. Entered service at: Bridgeport, Conn. Birth: Bridgeport, Conn. Date of issue: 16 December 1896. Citation: Voluntarily sought the line of battle and alone and unaided captured 2 prisoners, driving them before him to regimental headquarters at the point of the bayonet.

DAVIS, SAMUEL W.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Davis exercised extreme courage and vigilance while acting as a look-out for torpedoes and other obstructions throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

DEAKIN, CHARLES
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Deakin fought his gun with skill and courage throughout a furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan. He also participated in the actions at Forts Jackson and St. Philip.

DENIG, J. HENRY
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1839, York, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Sgt. Denig fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

DENNIS, RICHARD
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Dennis displayed outstanding skill and courage in operating the torpedo catcher and in assisting in working the bow chasers throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

DENSMORE, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Densmore fought his gun with skill and courage throughout a furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

DIGGINS, BARTHOLOMEW
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 391, 12 November 1891. Citation: On board the flagship, U.S.S. Hartford, during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Diggins, as loader of a gun, remained steadfast at his post throughout the furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

DONNELLY, JOHN
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Metacomet. As a member of the boat’s crew which went to the rescue of the U.S. Monitor Tecumseh when that vessel was struck by a torpedo in passing the enemy forts in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864, Donnelly braved the enemy fire which was said by the admiral to be “one of the most galling” he had ever seen and aided in rescuing from death 10 of the crew of the Tecumseh, eliciting the admiration of both friend and foe.

DOOLEN, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Although knocked down and seriously wounded in the head, Doolen refused to leave his station as shot and shell passed. Calm and courageous, he rendered gallant service throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the successful attacks carried out on Fort Morgan despite the enemy’s heavy return fire.

DUNCAN, ADAM
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Duncan fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the successful attacks carried out on Fort Morgan.

DUNPHY, RICHARD D.
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. Citation: On board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the rebel ram Tennessee, Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. With his ship under terrific enemy shellfire, Dunphy performed his duties with skill and courage throughout this fierce engagement which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee.

EDWARDS, JOHN
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Providence, R.I. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As second captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Wounded when an enemy shell struck, Edwards refused to go below for aid and, as heavy return fire continued to strike his vessel, took the place of the first captain and carried out his duties during the prolonged action which resulted in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

FITZPATRICK, THOMAS
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Canada. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of the No. 1 gun on board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford, during action against rebel gunboats, the ram Tennessee and Fort Morgan in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Although struck several times in the face by splinters, and with his gun disabled when a shell burst between the 2 forward 9-inch guns, killing and wounding 15 men, Fitzpatrick, within a few minutes, had the gun in working order again with new track, breeching and side tackle, had sent the wounded below, cleared the area of other casualties, and was fighting his gun as before. He served as an inspiration to the members of his crew and contributed to the success of the action in which the Tennessee was captured.

FREEMAN, MARTIN
Rank and organization: Pilot, U.S. Navy. Entered service at: Louisiana. Born: 18 May 1814, Germany. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As pilot of the flagship, U.S.S. Hartford, during action against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. With his ship under terrific enemy shellfire, Freeman calmly remained at his station in the maintop and skillfully piloted the ships into the bay. He rendered gallant service throughout the prolonged battle in which the rebel gunboats were captured or driven off, the prize ram Tennessee forced to surrender, and the fort successfully attacked.

GARDNER, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As seaman on board the U.S.S. Calena in the engagement at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Serving gallantly during this fierce battle which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and the damaging of Fort Morgan. Gardner behaved with conspicuous coolness under the fire of the enemy.

GARRISON, JAMES R.
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born. 1840, Poughkeepsie, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the flagship, U.S.S. Hartford, during successful engagements against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. When a shell struck his foot and severed one of his toes, Garrison remained at his station at the shell whip and, after crudely bandaging the wound, continued to perform his duties until severely wounded by another shellburst.

HALSTEAD, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Halstead fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

HAMILTON, HUGH
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1830, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Hamilton performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the successful attacks carried out on Fort Morgan.

HARRIS, JOHN
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Scotland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 17, 15 January 1866. Citation: As captain of the forecastle on board the U.S.S. Metacomet, Harris was a member of the boat’s crew which went to the rescue of the officers and crew of the U.S. Monitor Tecumseh, when that vessel was struck by a torpedo in passing the enemy forts in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864 Harris braved the enemy fire which was said by the admiral to be “one of the most galling” he had ever seen, and aided in rescuing from death 10 of the crew of the Tecumseh, thereby eliciting the admiration of both friend and foe.

HAYES, THOMAS
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Rhode Island. Accredited to: Rhode Island. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As Captain of No. 1 gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Cool and courageous at his station throughout the prolonged action, Hayes maintained fire from his gun on Fort Morgan and on ships of the Confederacy despite extremely heavy return fire.

HUDSON, MICHAEL
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1834, Sligo County, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked the decks, Sgt. Hudson fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee.

IRLAM, JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Stationed at the wheel on board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. When heavy enemy fire struck down several men at their guns and replacements were not available, Irlam voluntarily released 2 men who were stationed with him and carried on at the wheel with the assistance of only one of the crew throughout the furious battle.

IRVING, JOHN
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, East Brooklyn, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Irving fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

IRWIN, NICHOLAS
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Denmark. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Irwin fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

JAMES, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, James fought his gun with skill and courage throughout a furious 2-hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

JOHNSON, HENRY
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1824, Norway. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 82, 23 February 1867. Citation: As seaman on board the U.S.S. Metacomet, Johnson served as a member of the boat’s crew which went to the rescue of the U.S. Monitor Tecumseh when that vessel was struck by a torpedo in passing the enemy forts in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. He braved the enemy fire which was said by the admiral to be “one of the most galling” he had ever seen, and aided in rescuing from death 10 of the crew of the Tecumseh, thereby eliciting the admiration of both friend and foe.

JONES, ANDREW
Rank and organization: Chief Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as chief boatswain’s mate on board the U.S. Ironclad, Chickasaw, Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Although his enlistment was up, Jones volunteered for the battle of Mobile Bay, going on board the Chickasaw from the Vincennes where he then carried out his duties gallantly throughout the engagement with the enemy which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee.

JONES, JOHN E.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Oneida in the engagement at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Stationed at the wheel during the fierce action, Jones, though wounded, carried out his duties gallantly by going to the poop to assist at the signals after the wheel ropes were shot away and remained there until ordered to reeve new wheel ropes.

JONES, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Rlchmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Jones fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

JORDAN, THOMAS
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Portsmouth, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Calena during the attack on enemy forts at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Securely lashed to the side of the Oneida which had suffered the loss of her steering apparatus and an explosion of her boiler from enemy fire, the Calena aided the stricken vessel past the enemy forts to safety. Despite heavy damage to his ship from raking enemy fire, Jordan performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the action.

KENDRICK, THOMAS
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Bath, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Oneida in the engagement at Mobile Bay, 5 August, 1864. Volunteering for the Mobile Bay action from Bienville, Kendrick displayed courageous devotion to duty, and his excellent conduct throughout the battle which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging of Fort Morgan, attracted the attention of the commanding officer and those serving around him.

KENNA, BARNETT
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1827, England. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern Kenna fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

KINNAIRD, SAMUEL W.
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, New York, N.Y. ,Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as a landsman on board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Showing a presence of mind and cheerfulness that had much to do with maintaining the crew’s morale, Kinnaird served gallantly through the action which resulted in the capture of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

LAWSON, JOHN
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, Pennsylvania. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864. Wounded in the leg and thrown violently against the side of the ship when an enemy shell killed or wounded the 6-man crew as the shell whipped on the berth deck, Lawson, upon regaining his composure, promptly returned to his station and, although urged to go below for treatment, steadfastly continued his duties throughout the remainder of the action.

MACHON, JAMES
Rank and organization: Boy, U.S. Navy. Born: 1848, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Stationed in the immediate vicinity of the shell whips which were twice cleared of men by bursting shells, Machon remained steadfast at his post and performed his duties in the powder division throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

MACK, ALEXANDER
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Holland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Although wounded and sent below for treatment, Mack immediately returned to his post and took charge of his gun and, as heavy enemy return fire continued to fall, performed his duties with skill and courage until he was again wounded and totally disabled.

MADDEN, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, England. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during the successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Stationed in the immediate vicinity of the shell whips, which were twice cleared of men by bursting shells, Madden remained steadfast at his post and performed his duties in the powder division throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

MARTIN, EDWARD S.
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Calena during the attack on enemy forts at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Securely lashed to the side of the Oneida which had suffered the loss of her steering apparatus and an explosion of her boiler from enemy fire, the Calena aided the stricken vessel past the enemy forts to safety. Despite heavy damage to his ship from raking enemy fire, Martin performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the action.

MARTIN, JAMES
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1826, Derry, Ireland. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Sgt. Martin fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

McCULLOCK, ADAM
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1830, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Wounded when an enemy shell struck, and ordered to go below, McCullock refused to leave his station and continued to perform his duties throughout the prolonged action which resulted in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of Fort Morgan.

McFARLAND, JOHN
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Stationed at the wheel on board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford during successful action against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. With his ship under terrific enemy shellfire, McFarland performed his duties with skill and courage and, when the Lackawanna ran into his ship and every man at the wheel was in danger of being crushed, remained steadfast at his station and continued to steer the ship.

MclNTOSH, JAMES
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Canada. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Mclntosh performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the successful attacks carried out on Fort Morgan.

MELVILLE, CHARLES
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1828, Dover, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford during action against rebel gunboats, the ram Tennessee, and Fort Morgan in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Wounded and taken below to the surgeon when a shell burst between the two forward 9_inch guns, killing and wounding 15 men, Melville promptly returned to his gun on the deck and, although scarcely able to stand, refused to go below and continued to man his post throughout the remainder of the action resulting in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee.

MIFFLIN, JAMES
Rank and organization: Engineer’s Cook, U.S. Navy. Born: 1839, Richmond, Va. Accredited to: Virginia. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Stationed in the immediate vicinity of the shell whips which were twice cleared of men by bursting shells, Mifflin remained steadfast at his post and performed his duties in the powder division throughout the furious action which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

MILLER, ANDREW
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1836, Germany. Accredited to: Washington, D.C. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Sgt. Miller fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

MORGAN, JAMES H.
Rank and organization: Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks Morgan fought his gun with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

MURPHY, PATRICK
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1823, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. Citation: Served as boatswain’s mate on board the U.S.S. Metacomet, during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Murphy performed his duties with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

NAYLOR, DAVID
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1843, Thompsonville, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Oneida in the engagement at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Acting as powder boy at the 30-pounder Parrott rifle, Naylor had his passing box shot from his hands and knocked overboard where it fell in one of the Calena’s boats which was under the bow. Jumping overboard, Naylor recovered his box, returned to his station and continued to carry out his courageous actions throughout the engagement which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and the damaging of Fort Morgan.

NEWLAND, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Medway, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Serving on board the U.S.S. Oneida in the engagement at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Carrying out his duties as loader of the after 11-inch gun, Newland distinguished himself on board for his good conduct and faithful discharge of his station, behaving splendidly under the fire of the enemy and throughout the battle which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and the damaging of Fort Morgan.

NICHOLS, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1837, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Nichols fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee, and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

NOBLE, DANIEL
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Bath County, Ky. G.O. No.: 71, 15 January 1866. Citation: As landsman on board the U.S.S. Metacomet, Noble served among the boat’s crew which went to the rescue of the U.S. Monitor Tecumseh when that vessel was struck by a torpedo in passing enemy forts in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Noble braved the enemy fire which was said by the admiral to be “one of the most galling” he had ever seen and aided in rescuing from death 10 of the crew of the Tecumseh, thereby eliciting the admiration of both friend and foe.

O’CONNELL, THOMAS
Rank and organization: Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1842, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford, during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay on 5 August 1864. Although a patient in the sick bay, O’Connell voluntarily reported at his station at the shell whip and continued to perform his duties with zeal and courage until his right hand was severed by an enemy shellburst.

OVIATT, MILES M.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1841, Cattaraugus County, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked the deck, Cpl. Oviatt fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee.

PARKS, GEORGE
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1823, Schenectady, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Parks performed his duties with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

PELHAM, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: Halifax, Nova Scotia. Enlisted in: Nova Scotia. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the flagship U.S.S. Hartford during successful actions against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. When the other members of his guncrew were killed or wounded under the enemy’s terrific shellfire, Pelham calmly assisted the casualties below and voluntarily returned and took his place at an adjoining gun where another man had been struck down. He continued to fight his gun throughout the remainder of the battle which resulted in the capture of the Tennessee.

PHINNEY, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Boatswain’s Mate, U.S. Navy. Born: 1824, Norway. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram, Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Serving as a gun captain Phinney showed much presence of mind in managing the gun, and gave much needed encouragement to the crew during the engagement which resulted in the capture of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of Fort Morgan.

PRESTON, JOHN
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1841, Ireland. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Oneida in the engagement at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Severely wounded, Preston remained at his gun throughout the engagement which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and the damaging of Fort Morgan, carrying on until obliged to go to the surgeon to whom he reported himself as “only slightly injured.” He then assisted in taking care of the wounded below and wanted to be allowed to return to his battle station on deck. Upon close examination it was found that he was wounded quite severely in both eyes.

PRICE, EDWARD
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. When the sponge broke, leaving the head in the gun, and completely disabling the weapon, Price immediately cleared it by pouring powder into the vent and blowing the sponge head out, thereafter continuing to man the weapon until the close of the furious action which resulted in the capture of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the infliction of damage and destruction on Fort Morgan.

ROANTREE, JAMES S.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1835, Dublin, Ireland. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Oneida during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks and penetrated her boilers, Sgt. Roantree performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

SEANOR, JAMES
Rank and organization: Master_at_Arms, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as master_at_arms on board the U.S. Ironclad Chickasaw, Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Although his enlistment was up, Seanor volunteered for the battle of Mobile Bay, going on board the Chickasaw from the Vincennes where he carried out his duties gallantly throughout the engagement which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee.

SHARP, HENDRICK
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1815, Spain. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a 100_pounder rifle gun on topgallant forecastle on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Sharp fought his gun with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of the batteries at Fort Morgan.

SHERIDAN, JAMES
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Newark, N.J. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Oneida in the engagement at Mobile Bay 5 August 1864. Acting as captain of the after 11_inch gun, and wounded in several places, Sheridan remained at his gun until the firing had ceased and then took the place of the signal quartermaster who had been injured by a fall. Recommended for his gallantry and intelligence, Sheridan served courageously throughout this battle which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and the damaging of Fort Morgan.

SIMKINS, LEBBEUS
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1836, Utica N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Simkins performed his duties with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

SMITH, JAMES
Rank and organization: Captain of the Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1826, Albany, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S: Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee, in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Smith fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the prolonged battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the successful attacks carried out on Fort Morgan.

SMITH, JOHN
Rank and organization: Captain of Forecastle, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Boston, Mass. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during the successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Serving as a gun captain and finding he could not depress his gun when alongside the rebel ironclad Tennessee, Smith threw a hand holystone into one of the ports at a rebel using abusive language against the crew of the ship. He continued his daring action throughout the engagement which resulted in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of Fort Morgan.

SMITH, JOHN
Rank and organization: Second Captain of the Top, U.S. Navy. Born 1826, Albany, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As captain of a gun on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Smith fought his gun with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

SMITH, OLOFF
Rank and organization. Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, Sweden. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864 Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Smith performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

SMITH, WALTER B.
Rank and organization: Ordinary Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1827, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Cool and courageous at his station throughout the prolonged action, Smith rendered outstanding service at the 100_pounder rifle on the topgallant forecastle and while firing his musket into the gun ports of the rebel Tennessee.

SMITH, WILLARD M.
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1840, Alleghany, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats, and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire continued to fall, Cpl. Smith fought his gun with skill and courage throughout the furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee.

SPROWLE, DAVID
Rank and organization: Orderly Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 1811, Lisbon, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats, and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Orderly Sgt. Sprowle inspired the men of the marine guard and directed a division of great guns throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

STANLEY, WILLIAM A.
Rank and organization: Shell Man, U.S. Navy. Born: 1831, Massachusetts. Accredited to: Massachusetts. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Shell man on No. 8 on board the U.S.S. Hartford during successful actions against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Although severely wounded when his ship sustained numerous hits under the enemy’s terrific shellfire, Stanley continued to pass shell until forced by the loss of blood to go below.

STERLING, JAMES E.
Rank and organization. Coal Heaver, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. Although wounded when heavy enemy return fire raked the decks of his ship, Sterling courageously remained at his post and continued passing shell until struck down a second time and completely disabled.

TAYLOR, GEORGE
Rank and organization: Armorer, U.S. Navy. Born: 1830, Watertown, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, on 5 August 1864. When an enemy shell exploded in the shellroom, Taylor although wounded went into the room and, with his hand, extinguished the fire from the explosion. He then carried out his duties during the remainder of the prolonged action which resulted in the capture of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of Fort Morgan.

TAYLOR, THOMAS
Rank an_! organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Bangor, Maine. Accredited to: Maine. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Metacomet during the action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the rebel ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Taylor encouraged the men of the forward pivot gun when the officer in command displayed cowardice, doing honor to the occasion.

TODD, SAMUEL
Rank and organization. Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1815, Portsmouth, N.H. Accredited to: New Hampshire. G. O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Stationed at the conn on board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite severe damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks from stem to stern, Todd performed his duties with outstanding skill and courage throughout the furious battle which resulted in the surrender of the prize rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

TRUETT, ALEXANDER H.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1834, Baltimore, Md. Accredited to: Maryland. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship and the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Truett performed his duties with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

WARD, JAMES
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1833, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Serving as gunner on board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Although wounded and ordered below, Ward refused to go, but rendered aid at one of the guns when the crew was disabled. He subsequently remained in the chains, heaving the lead, until nearly caught in the collision with the ram Tennessee. He continued to serve bravely throughout the action which resulted in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of Fort Morgan.

WELLS, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1832, Germany. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: As landsman and lookout on board the U.S.S. Richmond during action against rebel forts and gunboats and with the ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Despite damage to his ship the loss of several men on board as enemy fire raked her decks, Wells performed his duties with skill and courage throughout a furious 2_hour battle which resulted in the surrender of the rebel ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of batteries at Fort Morgan.

WHITFIELD, DANIEL
Rank and organization: Quartermaster, U.S. Navy. Born: 1821, Newark, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Serving as quartermaster on board the U.S.S. Lackawanna during successful attacks against Fort Morgan, rebel gunboats and the rebel ram Tennessee in Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Acting as captain of a gun, Whitfield coolly stood by his gun, holding on to the lock string and waited alongside the rebel ram Tennessee until able to fire the shot that entered her port. Whitfield courageously carried out his duties during the prolonged action which resulted in the capture of the prize ram Tennessee and in the damaging and destruction of Fort Morgan.

WORAM, CHARLES B.
Rank and organization: Seaman, U.S. Navy. Born: 1845, New York, N.Y. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 45, 31 December 1864. Citation: Served on board the U.S.S. Oneida in the engagement at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Acting as an aid to the executive officer, Woram carried orders intelligently and correctly, distinguishing himself by his cool courage throughout the battle which resulted in the capture of the rebel ram Tennessee and the damaging of Fort Morgan.

YOUNG, EDWARD B.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1835, Bergan, N.J. Accredited to: New Jersey. G.O. No.: 59, 22 June 1865. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Calena during the attack on enemy forts at Mobile Bay, 5 August 1864. Securely lashed to the side of the Oneida which had suffered the loss of her steering apparatus and an explosion of her boiler from enemy fire, the Calena aided the stricken vessel past the enemy forts to safety. Despite heavy damage to his ship from raking enemy fire, Young performed his duties with skill and courage throughout the action.

McDONALD, FRANKLIN M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 11th U.S. Infantry Place and date: Near Fort Griffin, Tex., 5 August 1872. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Bowling Green, Ky. Date of issue: 31 August 1872. Citation: Gallantry in defeating Indians wlho attacked the mail.

*REESE, JAMES W.
Rank and organization. Private, U.S. Army, 26th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. Place and date. At Mt. Vassillio, Sicily, 5 August 1943. Entered service at: Chester, Pa. Birth: Chester, Pa. G.O. No.: 85, 17 December 1943. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of life. above and beyond the call of duty in action involving actual conflict with the enemy. When the enemy launched a counterattack which threatened the position of his company, Pvt. Reese, as the acting squad leader of a 60-mm. mortar squad, displaying superior leadership on his own initiative, maneuvered his squad forward to a favorable position, from which, by skillfully directing the fire of his weapon, he caused many casualties in the enemy ranks, and aided materially in repulsing the counterattack. When the enemy fire became so severe as to make his position untenable, he ordered the other members of his squad to withdraw to a safer position, but declined to seek safety for himself. So as to bring more effective fire upon the enemy, Pvt. Reese, without assistance, moved his mortar to a new position and attacked an enemy machinegun nest. He had only 3 rounds of ammunition but secured a direct hit with his last round, completely destroying the nest and killing the occupants. Ammunition being exhausted, he abandoned the mortar. seized a rifle and continued to advance, moving into an exposed position overlooking the enemy. Despite a heavy concentration of machinegun, mortar, and artillery fire, the heaviest experienced by his unit throughout the entire Sicilian campaign, he remained at this position and continued to inflict casualties upon the enemy until he was killed. His bravery, coupled with his gallant and unswerving determination to close with the enemy, regardless of consequences and obstacles which he faced, are a priceless inspiration to our armed forces.

*SEBILLE, LOUIS J.
Rank and organization: Major, U.S. Air Force, 67th Fighter-Bomber Squadron, 18th Fighter-Bomber Group, 5th Air Force. Place and date: Near Hanchang, Korea, 5 August 1950. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 21 November 1915, Harbor Beach. Mich. Citation: Maj. Sebille, distinguished himself by conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. During an attack on a camouflaged area containing a concentration of enemy troops, artillery, and armored vehicles, Maj. Sebille’s F-51 aircraft was severely damaged by antiaircraft fire. Although fully cognizant of the short period he could remain airborne, he deliberately ignored the possibility of survival by abandoning the aircraft or by crash landing, and continued his attack against the enemy forces threatening the security of friendly ground troops. In his determination to inflict maximum damage upon the enemy, Maj. Sebille again exposed himself to the intense fire of enemy gun batteries and dived on the target to his death. The superior leadership, daring, and selfless devotion to duty which he displayed in the execution of an extremely dangerous mission were an inspiration to both his subordinates and superiors and reflect the highest credit upon himself, the U.S. Air Force, and the armed forces of the United Nations.

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One thought on “August 5

  1. 1965 – Viet Cong destroy two million gallons of fuel in storage tanks near Da Nang.

    1974 – Congress cuts military aid to South Vietnam.

    Congress places a $1 billion ceiling on military aid to South Vietnam for fiscal year 1974. This figure was trimmed further to $700 million by August 11. Military aid to South Vietnam in fiscal year 1973 was $2.8 billion; in 1975 it would be cut to $300 million.

    Once U.S. aid was cut, it took the North Vietnamese only 55 days to defeat the South Vietnamese forces when they launched their final offensive in 1975.

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