July 3

3 July

1775On Cambridge common in Massachusetts, George Washington rides out in front of the American troops gathered there, draws his sword, and formally takes command of the Continental Army. Washington, a prominent Virginia planter and veteran of the French and Indian War, was appointed commander in chief by the Continental Congress two weeks before. In serving the American colonies in their war for independence, he declined to accept payment for his services beyond reimbursement of future expenses. George Washington was born in 1732 to a farm family in Westmoreland County, Virginia. His first direct military experience came as a lieutenant colonel in the Virginia colonial militia in 1754, when he led a small expedition against the French in the Ohio River valley on behalf of the governor of Virginia. Two years later, Washington took command of the defenses of the western Virginian frontier during the French and Indian War. After the war’s fighting moved elsewhere, he resigned from his military post, returned to a planter’s life, and took a seat in Virginia’s House of Burgesses. During the next two decades, Washington openly opposed the escalating British taxation and repression of the American colonies. In 1774, he represented Virginia at the Continental Congress. After the American Revolution erupted in 1775, Washington was nominated to be commander in chief of the newly established Continental Army. Some in the Continental Congress opposed his appointment, thinking other candidates were better equipped for the post, but he was ultimately chosen because as a Virginian his leadership helped bind the Southern colonies more closely to the rebellion in New England. With his inexperienced and poorly equipped army of civilian soldiers, General Washington led an effective war of harassment against British forces in America while encouraging the intervention of the French into the conflict on behalf of the colonists. On October 19, 1781, with the surrender of British General Charles Lord Cornwallis’ massive British army at Yorktown, Virginia, General Washington had defeated one of the most powerful nations on earth. After the war, the victorious general retired to his estate at Mount Vernon, but in 1787 he heeded his nation’s call and returned to politics to preside over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The drafters created the office of president with him in mind, and in February 1789 Washington was unanimously elected the first president of the United States. As president, Washington sought to unite the nation and protect the interests of the new republic at home and abroad. Of his presidency, he said, “I walk on untrodden ground. There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not hereafter be drawn in precedent.” He successfully implemented executive authority, making good use of brilliant politicians such as Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson in his Cabinet, and quieted fears of presidential tyranny. In 1792, he was unanimously reelected but four years later refused a third term. He died in 1799.
1778The Wyoming Massacre occurred during the American Revolution in the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania. As part of a British campaign against settlers in the frontier during the war, 360 American settlers, including women and children, were killed at an outpost called Wintermoot’s Fort after they were drawn out of the protection of the fort and ambushed.
1844 – Ambassador Caleb Cushing successfully negotiated a commercial treaty with China that opened five Chinese ports to U.S. merchants and protected the rights of American citizens in China.
1861 – US Colonel Jackson received his CSA commission as brigadier general.
1863Troops under Confederate General George Pickett begin a massive attack against the center of the Union lines at Gettysburg on the climactic third day of the Battle of Gettysburg, the largest engagement of the war. General Robert E. Lee’s Army of Northern Virginia encountered George Meade’s Army of the Potomac in Pennsylvania and battered the Yankees for two days. The day before Pickett’s charge, the Confederates had hammered each flank of the Union line but could not break through. Now, on July 3, Lee decided to attack the Union center, stationed on Cemetery Ridge, after making another unsuccessful attempt on the Union right flank at Culp’s Hill in the morning. The majority of the force consisted of Pickett’s division, but there were other units represented among the 15,000 attackers. After a long Confederate artillery bombardment, the Rebel force moved through the open field and up the slight rise of Cemetery Ridge. But by the time they reached the Union line, the attack had been broken into many small units, and they were unable to penetrate the Yankee center. The failed attack effectively ended the battle of Gettysburg. On July 4, Lee began to withdraw his forces to Virginia. The casualties for both armies were staggering. Lee lost 28,000 of his 75,000 soldiers, and Union losses stood at over 22,000. It was the last time Lee threatened Northern territory.
1863 – Major General Grant and Lieutenant General Pemberton, CSA, the gallant and tireless commander of the Vicksburg defenses, arranged an armistice to negotiate the terms of capitulation of the citadel. Only with the cessation of hostilities did the activity of the fleet under Rear Admiral Porter come to a halt off Vicksburg.
1863 – Battle of Donaldsonville, LA.
1864 – Battle of Chattahoochee River, GA, began and lasted until Jul 9.
1864 – At Harpers Ferry, WV, Federals evacuated in face of Early’s advance.
1890Idaho, the last of the 50 states to be explored by whites, is admitted to the union. Exploration of the North American continent mostly proceeded inward from the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and northward from Spanish Mexico. Therefore, the rugged territory that would become Idaho long remained untouched by Spanish, French, British, and American trappers and explorers. Even as late as 1805, Idaho Indians like the Shoshone had never encountered a white man. That changed with the arrival of the American explorers Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in the summer of 1805. Searching for a route over the Rocky Mountains to the Columbia River, Lewis and Clark traveled through Idaho with the aid of the Shoshone Indians and their horses. British fur traders and trappers followed a few years later, as did missionaries and a few hardy settlers. As with many remote western states, large-scale settlement began only after gold was discovered. Thousands of miners rushed into Idaho when word of a major gold strike came in September 1860. Merchants and farmers followed, eager to make their fortunes “mining the miners.” By 1880, Idaho boasted a population of 32,610. In the southern section of the territory, many settlers were Mormons who had been dispatched from Salt Lake City to found new colonies. Increasingly, Idaho territory became divided between a Mormon-dominated south and an anti-Mormon north. In the mid-1880s, anti-Mormon Republicans used widespread public antipathy toward the Mormon practice of polygamy to pass legislation denying the predominantly Democratic Mormons the vote. With the Democratic Mormon vote disarmed, Idaho became a Republican-dominated territory. National Republicans eager to increase their influence in the U.S. Congress began to push for Idaho statehood in 1888. The following year, the Idaho territorial legislature approved a strongly anti-Mormon constitution. The U.S. Congress approved the document on this day in 1890, and Idaho became the 43rd state in the Union.
1898The Spanish cruisers Cristóbal Colón, Almirante Oquendo, Vizcaya and Infanta Maria Teresa, and two torpedo-boat destroyers, lay bottled up in Santiago Harbor, with seven American ships maintaining a blockade just outside. Without warning, the Spanish squadron attempted to break out, and the Americans attacked, sinking one torpedo boat and immediately running the other aground. The Americans gave chase to Oquendo, Vizcaya and Colón. After a brief battle, all the Spanish warships were overtaken, with only two American causalities, both from the U.S. armored cruiser Brooklyn.
1903The first cable across the Pacific Ocean was spliced between Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila. Teddy Roosevelt placed the atoll of Midway Island under Navy supervision. The Commercial Pacific Cable Co. (later AT&T) set cable across the Pacific via Midway Island and the first around the world message was sent. The message took 9 minutes to circle the globe.
1905 – An Executive Order extended the jurisdiction of the Lighthouse Service to the noncontiguous territory of the American Samoan Island.
1915 – US military forces occupied Haiti, and remained until 1934.
1927 – Ensign Charles L. Duke, in command of CG-2327, boarded the rumrunner Greypoint in New York harbor and single-handedly captured the vessel, its 22-man crew, and its cargo of illegal liquor.
1930 – Congress created the U.S. Veterans Administration.
1943 – During the day, the Australians link up with the Americans from the Nassau Bay landing force in the Bitoi River region.
1943 – On New Georgia, American forces land at Zanana, about 8 miles east of Munda. There is no Japanese resistance and the beachhead is quickly consolidated.
1944Forces of the US 1st Army launch an offensive drive south from the Cotentin Peninsula with the objective of reaching a line from Coutances to St. Lo. The difficult terrain and poor weather contribute to a limited advance during the day toward St. Jean de Daye and La Haye du Puits. German forces resist.
1944 – Troops of the French Expeditionary Corps (part of US 5th Army) capture Siena. Other elements of the 5th Army reach Rosignano. Forces of the British 8th Army take Cortona.
1945 – The first American occupation troops arrive in Berlin. Meanwhile, Ernst Wilhelm Bohle, nominated by Hitler in 1940 to be Gauleiter of Britain, is captured by Allied troops.
1945 – American B-29 bombers attack Himeji, on Honshu, and the towns of Takamatsu, Tokushima and Kochi, on Shikoku Island, to the south of Honshu.
1947 – Soviet Union didn’t partake in the Marshall Plan.
1950 – USS Valley Forge and HMS Triumph participate in first carrier action of Korean Conflict. VF-51 aircraft (Valley Forge) shoot down 2 North Korean aircraft. The action is first combat test of F9F Panther and AD Skyraider.
1950 – Lieutenant (Junior Grade) Leonard H. Plog, flying a F9F Panther jet fighter, shot down a Yak-9P, claiming the first U.S. Navy aerial victory of the Korean War.
1968The U.S. command in Saigon releases figures showing that more Americans were killed during the first six months of 1968 than in all of 1967. These casualty figures were a direct result of the heavy fighting that had occurred during, and immediately after, the communist Tet Offensive. The offensive had begun on January 30, when communist forces attacked Saigon, Hue, five of six autonomous cities, 36 of 44 provincial capitals, and 64 of 245 district capitals. The timing and magnitude of the attacks caught the South Vietnamese and American forces completely off guard, but eventually the Allied forces turned the tide. Militarily, the Tet Offensive was a disaster for the communists. By the end of March 1968, they had not achieved any of their objectives and had lost 32,000 soldiers with 5,800 captured. U.S. forces suffered 3,895 dead; South Vietnamese losses were 4,954; non-U.S. allies lost 214. More than 14,300 South Vietnamese civilians died. Though the offensive was a crushing military defeat for the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese, early reports of a smashing communist victory went largely uncorrected in the U.S. news media. This was a great psychological victory for the communists. The heavy U.S. casualties incurred during the offensive, coupled with the disillusionment over the earlier overly optimistic reports of progress in the war, accelerated the growing disenchantment with President Johnson’s conduct of the war. Johnson, frustrated with his inability to reach a solution in Vietnam, announced on March 31, 1968, that he would neither seek nor accept the nomination of his party for re-election.
1986 – President Reagan presided over a gala ceremony in New York Harbor that saw the relighting of the renovated Statue of Liberty.
1988In the Persian Gulf, the U.S. Navy cruiser Vincennes shoots down an Iranian passenger jet that it mistakes for a hostile Iranian fighter aircraft. Two missiles were fired from the American warship–the aircraft was hit, and all 290 people aboard were killed. The attack came near the end of the Iran-Iraq War, when U.S. vessels were in the gulf defending Kuwaiti oil tankers. Minutes before Iran Air Flight 655 was shot down, the Vincennes had engaged Iranian gunboats that shot at its helicopter. Iran called the downing of the aircraft a “barbaric massacre,” but U.S. officials defended the action, claiming that the aircraft was outside the commercial jet flight corridor, flying at only 7,800 feet, and was on a descent toward the Vincennes. However, one month later, U.S. authorities acknowledged that the airbus was in the commercial flight corridor, flying at 12,000 feet, and not descending. The U.S. Navy report blamed crew error caused by psychological stress on men who were in combat for the first time. In 1996, the U.S. agreed to pay $62 million in damages to the families of the Iranians killed in the attack.
1996 – US Secret Service agents claimed to have broken up an operation by a New York couple that used monitoring equipment to steal 80,000 cellular phone numbers and id codes from motorists on an expressway that passed their apartment building.
1996 – Lockheed Martin Corp. won a $1 bil federal contract to build the next-generation space shuttle.
2000 – A 1970’s steel observation tower that preservationists said had desecrated the battlefield of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania was demolished.
2001 – The last parts of the US spy plane in China were flown out.
2002 – It was reported that Operation Xtermination, a drug investigation at Camp Lejeune, NC, seized over $1.4 million in drugs and convicted over 80 marines and sailors.
2002 – Chinese police found Wang Bingzhang, a pro-democracy activist and US resident, in Guangxi Province. He had been recently kidnapped with 2 others in Vietnam.
2002 – In Pakistan security forces killed 4 al Qaeda fighters near the Afghan border at Germa. 3 security men were killed. A land dispute broke out in Northern Waziristan near the Afghan border and 21 people were killed.
2002The first of the Coast Guard’s Maritime Safety and Security Teams (MSSTs), MSST-91101 was commissioned in Seattle, Washington on 3 July 2002. MSSTs were created in response to the terrorist attacks on the U.S. on 11 September 2001. MSSTs are domestic, mobile units that possess specialized training and capabilities to perform a broad spectrum of port safety and security operations. They were designed to offer operational commanders with a quick response capability that would meet changing threats in the nation’s harbors, ports, and internal waterways and to enforce moving and fixed security zones to protect commercial high interest vessels, U.S. Navy high value assets, and critical waterside infrastructure. Twelve MSST units were planned for deployment around the nation.
2003 – The US military commander in Europe was ordered to begin planning for possible American intervention in Liberia.
2003 – US troops killed 11 Iraqis who ambushed a convoy outside Baghdad.
2014 – ISIS captured Syria’s largest oilfield from rival Islamist fighters, Al-Nusra Front, who put up no resistance to the attack. Taking control of the al-Omar oilfield gave ISIS access to potentially useful crude oil reserves.

Congressional Medal of Honor Citations for Actions Taken This Day

BACON, ELIJAH W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 14th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Berlin, Conn. Birth: Burlington, Conn. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 16th North Carolina regiment (C.S.A.).

BENEDICT, GEORGE G.
Rank and organization: Second Lieutenant, Company C, 12th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Burlington, Vt. Birth: Burlington, Vt. Date of issue: 27 June 1892. Citation: Passed through a murderous fire of grape and canister in delivering orders and re-formed the crowded lines.

*BROWN, MORRIS, JR.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 126th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Penn Yan, N.Y. Born: August 1842, Hammondsport, N.Y. Date of issue: 6 March 1869. Citation: Capture of flag.

CLOPP, JOHN E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 71st Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Philadelphia, Pa. Birth: Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: 2 February 1865. Citation: Capture of flag of 9th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.), wresting it from the color bearer.

*CUSHING, ALONZO H.
Rank and Organization: 1st Lieutenant, U.S. Army, Battery A, 4th US Artillery, II Corps, Army of the Potomac. Place and Date: Gettysburg, PA, July 3rd, 1863. Entered Service At: Fredonia, New York. Born: 19 January 1841, at Delafield, Wisconsin. Departed: Yes (07/03/1863). G.O. Number: . Date of Issue: 11/06/2014. Citation: First Lieutenant Alonzo H. Cushing distinguished himself by acts of bravery above and beyond the call of duty while serving as an artillery commander in Battery A, 4th U.S. Artillery, Army of the Potomac at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania on July 3rd, 1863 during the American Civil War. That morning, Confederate forces led by General Robert E. Lee began cannonading First Lieutenant Cushing’s position on Cemetery Ridge. Using field glasses, First Lieutenant Cushing directed fire for his own artillery battery. He refused to leave the battlefield after being struck in the shoulder by a shell fragment. As he continued to direct fire, he was struck again – this time suffering grievous damage to his abdomen. Still refusing to abandon his command, he boldly stood tall in the face of Major General George E. Pickett’s charge and continued to direct devastating fire into oncoming forces. As the Confederate forces closed in, First Lieutenant Cushing was struck in the mouth by an enemy bullet and fell dead beside his gun. His gallant stand and fearless leadership inflicted severe casualties upon Confederate forces and opened wide gaps in their lines, directly impacting the Union force’s ability to repel Pickett’s charge. First Lieutenant Cushing’s extraordinary heroism and selflessness above and beyond the call of duty at the cost of his own life are in keeping with the highest traditions of military service and reflect great credit upon himself, Battery A, 4th U.S. Artillery, Army of the Potomac, and the United States Army.

DE CASTRO, JOSEPH H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at:——. Birth: Boston, Mass. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 19th Virginia regiment (C.S.A.).

DORE, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 126th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: England. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: The colors being struck down by a shell as the enemy were charging, this soldier rushed out and seized it, exposing himself to the fire of both sides.

ENDERLIN, RICHARD
Rank and organization: Musician, Company B, 73d Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1-3 July 1863. Entered service at: Chillicothe, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 11 September 1897. Citation: Voluntarily took a rifle and served as a soldier in the ranks during the first and second days of the battle. Voluntarily and at his own imminent peril went into the enemy’s lines at night and, under a sharp fire, rescued a wounded comrade.

*FALLS, BENJAMIN F.
Rank and organization: Color Sergeant, Company A, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Lynn, Mass. Birth. Portsmouth, N.H. Date of issue. December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.

FLYNN, CHRISTOPHER
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 14th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Sprague, Conn. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 52d North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).

FUGER, FREDERICK
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Battery A, 4th U.S. Artillery. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 24 August 1897. Citation: All the officers of his battery having been killed or wounded and five of its guns disabled in Pickett’s assault, he succeeded to the command and fought the remaining gun with most distinguished gallantry until the battery was ordered withdrawn.

HINCKS, WILLIAM B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant Major, 14th Connecticut Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Bridgeport, Conn. Birth: Bucksport, Me. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: During the highwater mark of Pickett’s charge on 3 July 1863 the colors of the 14th Tenn. Inf. C.S.A. were planted 50 yards in front of the center of Sgt. Maj. Hincks’ regiment. There were no Confederates standing near it but several were Iying down around it. Upon a call for volunteers by Maj. Ellis, commanding, to capture this flag, this soldier and 2 others leaped the wall. One companion was instantly shot. Sgt. Maj. Hincks outran his remaining companion running straight and swift for the colors amid a storm of shot. Swinging his saber over the prostrate Confederates and uttering a terrific yell, he seized the flag and hastily returned to his lines. The 14th Tenn. carried 12 battle honors on its flag. The devotion to duty shown by Sgt. Maj. Hlncks gave encouragement to many of his comrades at a crucial moment of the battle.

JELLISON, BENJAMIN H.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Newburyport, Mass. Birth: Newburyport, Mass. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 57th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.). He also assisted in taking prisoners.

MAYBERRY, JOHN B.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 1st Delaware Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Kent County, Del. Birth: Smyrna, Del. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.

McCARREN, BERNARD
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st Delaware Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Wilmington, Del. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.

MILLER, JOHN
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 8th Ohio Infantry.
Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Freemont, Sandusky County, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue. 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of 2 flags.

MILLER, WILLIAM E.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company H, 3d Pennsylvania Cavalry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Born: 5 February 1836, West Hill, Pa. Date of issue 21 July 1897. Citation: Without orders, led a charge of his squadron upon the flank of the enemy, checked his attack, and cut off and dispersed the rear of his column.

MUNSELL, HARVEY M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 99th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 1_3 July 1863. Entered service at: Vanango County, Pa. Birth: Steuben County, N.Y. Date of issue: 5 February 1866. Citation: Gallant and courageous conduct as color bearer. (This noncommissioned officer carried the colors of his regiment through 13 engagements.)

O’BRIEN, HENRY D.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 1st Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: St. Anthony Falls, Minn. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 9 April 1890. Citation: Taking up the colors where they had fallen, he rushed ahead of his regiment, close to the muzzles of the enemy’s guns, and engaged in the desperate struggle in which the enemy was defeated, and though severely wounded, he held the colors until wounded a second time.

PLATT, GEORGE C.
Rank and organization: Private, Troop H, 6th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Fairfield, Pa., 3 July 63. Entered service at: —–. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 July 1895. Citation: Seized the regimental flag upon the death of the standard bearer in a hand_to_hand fight and prevented it from falling into the hands of the enemy.

RAYMOND, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 108th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Penfield, N.Y. Birth: Penfield, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 March 1896 Citation: Voluntarily and under a severe fire brought a box of ammunition to his comrades on the skirmish line.

RICE, EDMUND
Rank and organization: Major, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Boston, Mass. Birth: Brighton, Mass. Date of issue: 6 October 1891. Citation: Conspicuous bravery on the third day of the battle on the countercharge against Pickett’s division where he fell severely wounded within the enemy’s lines.

RICHMOND, JAMES
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 8th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Toledo Ohio. Birth: Maine. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.

ROBINSON, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 19th Massachusetts Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Roxbury, Mass. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 57th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).

ROOD, OLIVER P.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 20th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Terre Haute, Vigo County, Ind. Birth: Frankfort County, Ky. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 21st North Carolina Infantry (C.S.A.).

SHERMAN, MARSHALL
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 1st Minnesota Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at. St. Paul, Minn. Birth: Burlington, Vt. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 28th Virginia Infantry (C.S.A.).

SOUTHARD, DAVID
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date. At Sailors Creek, Va., 6 April 1865. Entered service at:——. Birth: Ocean County, N.J. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Capture of flag; and was the first man over the works in the charge.

THOMPSON, JAMES B.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 1st Pennsylvania Rifles. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Perrysville, Pa. Birth: Juniata County, Pa. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of 15th Georgia Infantry (C.S.A.).

VEAZEY, WHEELOCK G.
Rank and organization: Colonel, 16th Vermont Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Springfield, Vt. Born: 5 December 1835, Brentwood, N.H. Date of issue: 8 September 1891. Citation: Rapidly assembled his regiment and charged the enemy’s flank; charged front under heavy fire, and charged and destroyed a Confederate brigade, all this with new troops in their first battle.

WALL, JERRY
Rank and organization. Private, Company B, 126th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Milo, N.Y. Birth: Geneva, N.Y. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag.

WEBB, ALEXANDER S.
Rank and organization: Brigadier General, U.S. Volunteers. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: New York, N.Y. Born: 15 February 1835, New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 September 1891. Citation: Distinguished personal gallantry in leading his men forward at a critical period in the contest.

WELLS, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Major, 1st Vermont Cavalry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: Waterbury, Vt. Born: 14 December 1837, Waterbury, Vt. Date of issue: 8 September 1891. Citation: Led the second battalion of his regiment in a daring charge.

WILEY, JAMES
Rank and organization. Sergeant, Company B, 59th New York Infantry. Place and date: At Gettysburg, Pa., 3 July 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 1 December 1864. Citation: Capture of flag of a Georgia regiment.

WILSON, CHARLES E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 1st New Jersey Cavalry. Place and date: At Sailors Creek, Va., 6 April 1865. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Bucks County, Pa. Date of issue: 3 July 1865. Citation: Charged the enemy’s works, colors in hand, and had 2 horses shot from under him.

BRADBURY, SANFORD
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Hell Canyon, Ariz., 3 July 1869. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Sussex County, N.J. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Conspicuous gallantry in action.

HAUPT, PAUL
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Hell Canyon, Ariz., 3 July 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Prussia. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.

MITCHELL, JOHN J.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company L, 8th U.S. Cavalry. Place and date: At Hell Canyon, Ariz., 3 July 1869. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 3 March 1870. Citation: Gallantry in action.

HOLT, GEORGE
Rank and organization: Quarter Gunner, U.S. Navy. Born: 1840, Kentucky. Accredited to: Kentucky. G.O. No.: 180, 10 October 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Hamburg Harbor, 3 July 1871. Jumping overboard at the imminent risk of his life, Holt, with a comrade, rescued from drowning one of a party who was thrown from a shore boat into a 4-knot, running tide while the boat was coming alongside the ship.

TOBIN, PAUL
Rank and organization: Landsman, U.S. Navy. Birth: Plybin, France. Entered service at: Brest, France. G.O. No.: 180, 10 October 1872. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Plymouth, Hamburg Harbor, 3 July 1871. Jumping overboard at the imminent risk of his life, Tobin, with a comrade, rescued from drowning one of a party who was thrown from a shore boat into a 4-knot running tide while the boat was coming alongside the ship.

MAcNEAL, HARRY LEWIS
Rank and organization: Private, U.S. Marine Corps. Born: 22 March 1875, Philadelphia, Pa. Accredited to: Pennsylvania. G.O. No.: 526, 9 August 1899. Citation: On board the U.S.S. Brooklyn during action at the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, 3 July 1898. Braving the fire of the enemy, MacNeal displayed gallantry throughout this action.

GLOWIN, JOSEPH ANTHONY
Rank and organization: Corporal, U .S. Marine Corps. Born: 14 March 1892, Detroit, Mich. Accredited to: Michigan. G.O. NO.: 244, 30 October 1916. Citation: During an engagement at Guayacanas on 3 July 1916, Cpl. Glowin participated in action against a considerable force of rebels on the line of march.

WINANS, ROSWELL
Rank and organization: Brigadier General (then First Sergeant), U.S. Marine Corps. Place and date: Guayacanas, Dominican Republic, 3 July 1916. Entered service at: Washington. Born. 9 December 1887, Brookville, Ind. G.O. No.: 244, 30 October 1916. Citation: During an engagement at Guavacanas on 3 July 1916, 1st Sgt. Winans participated in action against a considerable force of rebels on the line of march. During a running fight of 1,200 yards, our forces reached the enemy entrenchments and Cpl. Joseph A. Gowin, U.S.M.C., placed the machinegun, of which he had charge, behind a large log across the road and immediately opened fire on the trenches. He was struck once but continued firing his gun, but a moment later he was again struck and had to be dragged out of the position into cover. 1st Sgt. Winans, U.S.M.C., then arrived with a Colt’s gun which he placed in a most exposed position, coolly opened fire on the trenches and when the gun jammed, stood up and repaired it under fire. All the time Glowin and Winans were handling their guns they were exposed to a very heavy fire which was striking into the logs and around the men, 7 men being wounded and 1 killed within 20 feet. 1st Sgt. Winans continued flring his gun until the enemy had abandoned the trenches.

*KOELSCH, JOHN KELVIN.
Rank and organization: Lieutenant (J.G.), U.S. Navy, Navy helicopter rescue unit. Place and date: North Korea, 3 July 1951. Entered service at: Los Angeles, Calif. Birth: London, England. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving with a Navy helicopter rescue unit. Although darkness was rapidly approaching when information was received that a marine aviator had been shot down and was trapped by the enemy in mountainous terrain deep in hostile territory, Lt. (J.G.) Koelsch voluntarily flew a helicopter to the reported position of the downed airman in an attempt to effect a rescue. With an almost solid overcast concealing everything below the mountain peaks, he descended in his unarmed and vulnerable aircraft without the accompanying fighter escort to an extremely low altitude beneath the cloud level and began a systematic search. Despite the increasingly intense enemy fire, which struck his helicopter on 1 occasion, he persisted in his mission until he succeeded in locating the downed pilot, who was suffering from serious burns on the arms and legs. While the victim was being hoisted into the aircraft, it was struck again by an accurate burst of hostile fire and crashed on the side of the mountain. Quickly extricating his crewmen and the aviator from the wreckage, Lt. (J.G.) Koelsch led them from the vicinity in an effort to escape from hostile troops, evading the enemy forces for 9 days and rendering such medical attention as possible to his severely burned companion until all were captured. Up to the time of his death while still a captive of the enemy, Lt. (J.G.) Koelsch steadfastly refused to aid his captors in any manner and served to inspire his fellow prisoners by his fortitude and consideration for others. His great personal valor and heroic spirit of self-sacrifice throughout sustain and enhance the finest traditions of the U.S. Naval Service.

*SHUCK, WILLIAM E., JR.
Rank and organization: Staff Sergeant, U.S. Marine Corps, Company G, 3d Battalion, 7th Marines, 1st Marine Division (Rein.). Place and date: Korea, 3 July 1952. Entered service at: Cumberland, Md. Born. 16 August 1926, Cumberland, Md. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty while serving as a squad leader of Company G, in action against enemy aggressor forces. When his platoon was subjected to a devastating barrage of enemy small-arms, grenade, artillery, and mortar fire during an assault against strongly fortified hill positions well forward of the main line of resistance, S/Sgt. Shuck, although painfully wounded, refused medical attention and continued to lead his machine gun squad in the attack. Unhesitatingly assuming command of a rifle squad when the leader became a casualty, he skillfully organized the 2 squads into an attacking force and led 2 more daring assaults upon the hostile positions. Wounded a second time, he steadfastly refused evacuation and remained in the foremost position under heavy fire until assured that all dead and wounded were evacuated. Mortally wounded by an enemy sniper bullet while voluntarily assisting in the removal of the last casualty, S/Sgt. Shuck, by his fortitude and great personal valor in the face of overwhelming odds, served to inspire all who observed him. His unyielding courage throughout reflects the highest credit upon himself and the U.S. Naval Service. He gallantly gave his life for his country.

*BLANCHFIELD, MICHAEL R.
Rank and organization: Specialist Fourth Class, U.S. Army, Company A, 4th Battalion, 503d Infantry, 173d Airborne Brigade. Place and date: Binh Dinh Province, Republic of Vietnam, 3 July 1969. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 4 January 1950, Minneapolis, Minn. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Blanchfield distinguished himself while serving as a rifleman in Company A on a combat patrol. The patrol surrounded a group of houses to search for suspects. During the search of 1 of the huts, a man suddenly ran out toward a nearby tree line. Sp4c. Blanchfield, who was on guard outside the hut, saw the man, shouted for him to halt, and began firing at him as the man ignored the warning and continued to run. The suspect suddenly threw a grenade toward the hut and its occupants. Although the exploding grenade severely wounded Sp4c. Blanchfield and several others, he regained his feet to continue the pursuit of the enemy. The fleeing enemy threw a second grenade which landed near Sp4c. Blanchfield and several members of his patrol. Instantly realizing the danger, he shouted a warning to his comrades. Sp4c. Blanchfield unhesitatingly and with complete disregard for his safety, threw himself on the grenade, absorbing the full and fatal impact of the explosion. By his gallant action and self-sacrifice, he was able to save the lives and prevent injury to 4 members of the patrol and several Vietnamese civilians in the immediate area. Sp4c. Blanchfield’s extraordinary courage and gallantry at the cost of his life above and beyond the call of duty are in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflect great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.

*FOLLAND, MICHAEL FLEMING
Rank and organization: Corporal, U.S. Army, Company D, 2d Battalion, 3d Infantry, 199th Infantry Brigade. Place and date: Long Khanh, Providence, Republic of Vietnam, 3 July 1969. Entered service at: Richmond, Va. Born: 15 April 1949, Richmond, Va. Citation: For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Cpl. Folland distinguished himself while serving as an ammunition bearer with the weapons platoon of Company D, during a reconnaissance patrol mission. As the patrol was moving through a dense jungle area, it was caught in an intense crossfire from heavily fortified and concealed enemy ambush positions. As the patrol reacted to neutralize the ambush, it became evident that the heavy weapons could not be used in the cramped fighting area. Cpl. Folland dropped his recoilless rifle ammunition, and ran forward to join his commander in an assault on the enemy bunkers. The assaulting force moved forward until it was pinned down directly in front of the heavily fortified bunkers by machine gun fire. Cpl. Folland stood up to draw enemy fire on himself and to place suppressive fire on the enemy positions while his commander attempted to destroy the machine gun positions with grenades. Before the officer could throw a grenade, an enemy grenade landed in the position. Cpl. Folland alerted his comrades and his commander hurled the grenade from the position. When a second enemy grenade landed in the position, Cpl. Folland again shouted a warning to his fellow soldiers. Seeing that no one could reach the grenade and realizing that it was about to explode, Cpl. Folland, with complete disregard for his safety, threw himself on the grenade. By his dauntless courage, Cpl. Folland saved the lives of his comrades although he was mortally wounded by the explosion. Cpl. Folland’s extraordinary heroism, at the cost of his life, was in keeping with the highest traditions of the military service and reflects great credit upon himself, his unit, and the U.S. Army.

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