Added to 8 July

1663 – Charles II of England grants John Clarke a Royal charter to Rhode Island.
1760The Battle of Restigouche, a naval battle fought during the French and Indian War on the Restigouche River between the British Royal Navy and the small flotilla of vessels of the French Navy, Acadian militia and Mi’kmaq militias. The French vessels had been sent to relieve New France after the fall of Quebec. Supplies were extraordinarily important because France ran their colonies such that the colonies were wholly dependent on products and manufacturing of the motherland. The loss of the Battle of Restigouche and the consequent inability to supply the troops, marked the end of any serious attempt by France to keep hold of their colonies in North America, and it severely curtailed any hopes for a lengthy resistance to the British by the French forces that remained. The battle was the last major engagement of the Mi’kmaq and Acadian militias before the Burying of the Hatchet Ceremony between the Mi’kmaq and the British.
1775The Olive Branch Petition, adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775, was signed by members of the Continental Congress. The petition was a final attempt to avoid a full-blown war between the Thirteen Colonies that the Congress represented, and Great Britain. The petition affirmed American loyalty to Great Britain and entreated the king to prevent further conflict. In August 1775 the colonies were formally declared to be in rebellion by the Proclamation of Rebellion, and the petition was rejected in fact, although not having been received by the king before declaring the Congress-supporting colonists traitors.
1932 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average reaches its lowest level of the Great Depression, closing at 41.22.
1948 – The United States Air Force accepts its first female recruits into a program called Women in the Air Force (WAF).
1974 – Reverend Alice M. Henderson became the first woman to officially serve in the U.S. Army Chaplain Corps. Henderson was sworn in at U.S. Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) at Fort McPherson, Ga. and went on to serve the nation for 13 years.
2011 – Space Shuttle Atlantis is launched in the final mission of the U.S. Space Shuttle program.

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