1918 – General Erich Ludendorff calls off his twin offensives, Bluecher and Yorck, which began on 27 May. Although his assault units have advanced to a maximum depth of 20 miles over a 30 mile line they have run out of steam. He is also facing increasingly strong counterattacks from French and , newly arrived, US forces.
1964 – As a result of the report to President Johnson, Defense Secretary McNamara orders the US Army to take ‘immediate action…to improve the effectiveness and readiness status of its materiel prestocked for possible use in Southeast Asia.’ Specifically, he orders the Army to augment stocks at Korat, Thailand, near the Laotian border, to support potential combat operations by a US Army infantry brigade.
1972 – Seymour Hersh further reports that a massacre at Mykhe 4, two miles from Mylai, was perpetrated by Bruno Company, Task Force barker, Americal Division on 16 March 1968–the same day as Myali. No prosecutions have been made because of lack of evidence. The Peers Report acknowledges that ‘a large number of non-combatants were killed during the search of the hamlet.’
1973 – The US Senate approves a bill to block funds for any US military activities in Indochina and the House of Representatives concurs. Nixon and Kissinger lobby to postpone the ban until 15 August, to enable continued bombing of Cambodia.
1965 – The State Department confirms that US troops, assigned to guard US installations in Vietnam, are in fact, engaging in some combat against Communist forces.
1964 – The UN Security Council names Brazil, the Ivory Coast, and Morocco to form a commission to investigate conditions on the Cambodia-Vietnam border.
1963 – Diem’s sister-in-law, Madame Nhu, self-styled First lady of Vietnam, alleges the Buddhists are being manipulated by the Americans, publically contradicting Diem. This does nothing to improve the ‘Dragon Lady’ image that Madame Nhu has begun to acquire in the United States. Pressure form Deputy Ambassador William Trueheart forces Diem to create a cosmetic committee to investigate the Hue incident.
1964 – US officials report that Vietcong are blockading a 600-square-mile area south of Camau to starve the residents and to deprive South Vietnam of charcoal.
1971 – In an unusual secret US Senate session to review the American military role in Laos, including some $350 million annually in aid, regular raids by B-52 bombers, and 4,800 CIA financed Thai troops, Stuart Symington (D-MO), J. William Fullbright (D-AR), and Edward Kennedy (D-MA) attack the Nixon administration’s policies. The State Department defends the use of ‘volunteer’ Thais predating the 1970 congressional ban on the use of mercenaries.
1970 – In a speech delivered in Hanoi, Norodom Sihanouk pledges Cambodians will fight with the Vietnamese Communists to defeat US ‘imperialism.’
1918 – Under orders form General Erich Ludendorff, the deputy chief of the German General Staff, General Oskar von Hutier’s Eighteenth Army launches the fourth in a series of offensives. Ludendorff is aiming to unite two salient, carved out in previous attacks, in the Amiens and Aisne-Marne sectors. Hutier is to attack westward along the Matz River, a tributary of the Oise River, in the direction of Noyon and Montdidier. The commander of the Third French Army, however, General Georges Humbert, has been forewarned by deserters of the German attack and organizes his defenses accordingly. He initiates an artillery bombardment on the enemy assault troops shortly before their onslaught. This is still unable to prevent the Germans from gaining some 5 miles on the first day of their attack which is codenamed Gneisenau. French resistance intensifies over the following days and the attempted link-up between Hutier’s troops and the German Seventh Army under General Max von Boehn, which began an attack from Soissons on the 10th, fails. Meanwhile, French general Charles Mangin has organized a counterattacking force of three French and two US divisions. These strike the Eighteenth Army on the 12th, forcing Ludendorff to call off the operation the following day.
1961 – Diem requests US assistance in increasing the South Vietnamese Army by 100,000 men. In August, Washington agrees to finance a 30,000 man increase, but continues to postpone the buildup of US advisors, Diem also requested.
1964 – As a consequence of orders to have armed escorts for reconnaissance flights over Laos, escort jets begin attacking Pathet Lao fun positions and a Pathet Lao headquarters. The shoot down of the two planes that initiated this is made public but the full extent of US involvement is not.
1969 – President Thieu, in a televised news conference in Saigon, attempts to counter the gloom following his meeting with President Nixon by saying ‘this is a replacement, not a withdrawal. Withdrawal is a defeatist and misleading term.’
1972 – In Military Region II, senior US advisor John Paul Vann is killed in a helicopter crash.
1972 – Under President Nixon, the number of USAF fighter bombers in Southeast Asia has tripled, the number of aircraft carriers has tripled and will quadruple (2 to 8), and B-52s are being quadrupled.
1963 – MACV Commander General Paul Harkins is reported to warn US military personnel to avoid duty with Vietnamese military units involved in the suppression of the Buddhists.
1964 – Embarrassed by the disclosure of US participation in air action sin Laos, Souvanna Phouma threatens to resign if the flights don’t stop. The US Ambassador to Los, Leonard Unger, persuades Souvanna to change his mind, and after a temporary suspension, the US State Department announces on the 11th that the reconnaissance flights will continue ‘as necessary’ but that ‘operational aspects would not be discussed.’ This results in describing all US air operations in Laos during the coming years as ‘reconnaissance flights.’
1965 – Amid rising criticism of the new combat role of US forces in Vietnam, Johnson’s Attorney General, Nicholas Katzenbach, writes to assure the president that he has the authority to commit large-scale forces without going back to Congress.
1969 – President Nixon says the Midway meeting ahs ‘opened wide the door to peace’ and invites North Vietnam to ‘walk with us through that door.’ Nixon challenges North Vietnam to begin withdrawing forces or to begin serious negotiations, or both.
1972 – US Phantom jets destroy Langchi hydroelectric power plant, using 2,000-pound, laser-guided bombs. Langchi supplied power to the Hanoi-Haiphong area.