May 22

22 May

1804 – The Lewis and Clark Expedition officially began as the Corps of Discovery departed from St. Charles, Missouri.
1807 – A grand jury indicts former Vice President of the United States Aaron Burr on a charge of treason.
1843A massive wagon train, made up of 1,000 settlers and 1,000 head of cattle, sets off down the Oregon Trail from Independence, Missouri. Known as the “Great Emigration,” the expedition came two years after the first modest party of settlers made the long, overland journey to Oregon. After leaving Independence, the giant wagon train followed the Sante Fe Trail for some 40 miles and then turned northwest to the Platte River, which it followed along its northern route to Fort Laramie, Wyoming. From there, it traveled on to the Rocky Mountains, which it passed through by way of the broad, level South Pass that led to the basin of the Colorado River. The travelers then went southwest to Fort Bridger, northwest across a divide to Fort Hall on the Snake River, and on to Fort Boise, where they gained supplies for the difficult journey over the Blue Mountains and into Oregon. The Great Emigration finally arrived in October, completing the 2,000-mile journey from Independence in five months. In the next year, four more wagon trains made the journey, and in 1845 the number of emigrants who used the Oregon Trail exceeded 3,000. Travel along the trail gradually declined with the advent of the railroads, and the route was finally abandoned in the 1870s.
1856Southern Congressman Preston Brooks savagely beats Northern Senator Charles Sumner in the halls of Congress as tensions rise over the expansion of slavery. When the controversial Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854 was passed, popular sovereignty was applied within the two new territories and people were given the right to decide the slave issue by vote. Because the act nullified the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the debate over slavery intensified. Northerners were incensed that slavery could again resurface in an area where it had been banned for over 30 years. When violence broke out in Kansas Territory, the issue became central in Congress. On May 19, Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner, an ardent abolitionist, began a two-day speech on the Senate floor in which he decried the “crime against Kansas” and blasted three of his colleagues by name, one of which—South Carolina Senator Andrew P. Butler—was elderly, sick, and absent from the proceedings. Butler’s cousin, Representative Preston Brooks, who had a history of violence, took it upon himself to defend the honor of his kin. Wielding the cane he used for injuries he incurred in a duel over a political debate in 1840, Brooks entered the Senate chamber and attacked Sumner at his desk, which was bolted to the floor. Sumner’s legs were pinned by the desk so he could not escape the savage beating. It was not until other congressmen subdued Brooks that Sumner finally escaped. Brooks became an instant hero in the South, and supporters sent him many replacement canes. He was vilified in the North and became a symbol of the stereotypically inflexible, uncompromising representative of the slave power. The incident exemplified the growing hostility between the two camps in the prewar years. Sumner did not return to the Senate for three years while he recovered.
1863 – The US War Dept. established the Bureau of Colored Troops.
1863 – U.S. Grant’s second attack on Vicksburg, Miss., failed and a siege began.
1863 – Siege of Port Hudson: Union forces begin to lay siege to the Confederate-controlled Port Hudson, Louisiana.
1864 – Battle of North Anna River, VA.
1864 – After ten weeks, the Union Army’s Red River Campaign ends with the Union unable to achieve any of its objectives.
1871 – The U.S. Army issues an order for abandonment of Fort Kearny in Nebraska.
1872 – U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signs the Amnesty Act into law restoring full civil and political rights to all but about 500 Confederate sympathizers.
1882 – Commodore Shufeldt signs commerce treaty opening Korea to U.S. trade.
1906 – The Wright brothers are granted U.S. patent number 821,393 for their “Flying-Machine”.
1912First Lieutenant Alfred A. Cunningham, the first Marine officer to be assigned to “duty in connection with aviation” by Major General Commandant William P. Biddle. Cunningham reported for aviation training at the Naval Aviation Camp at Annapolis, Maryland, and Marine aviation had its official beginning.
1939 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini signed a “Pact of Steel” committing Germany and Italy to a military alliance forming the Axis powers.
1942President Roosevelt orders the Selective Service registration of all male Americans residents who reach the age of 18 or 19 before June 30th or has reached the age of 20 since December 31, 1941. This fifth registration will generate 3.1 million new names. The same day he warns against a flood of optimism (in the wake of the Doolittle Raid of April 18th) and says it will be a long war.
1942 – Ted Williams of the Boston Red Sox enlists in the United States Marine Corps as a flight instructor.
1943Admiral Dontiz orders all U-boat patrols in the north Atlantic to break off operations against the convoys. The submarine losses have grown too high. This decision effectively ends the battle of the Atlantic with an Allied victory. Some boats are moved south to the Caribbean and to waters off the Azores.
1944 – US 5th Army forces continue to advance. The US 2nd Corps (Keyes) advances north along the coast and Route 7. The French Expeditionary Corps captures Pico. There is continued heavy German resistance in the Liri Valley.
1944 – An American submarine detects the concentration of the Japanese fleet around Tawitawi.
1944 – Japanese forces attack US positions around Aitape. American forces make some withdrawals.
1944U.S. and British aircraft begin a systematic bombing raid on railroads in Germany and other parts of northern Europe, called Operation Chattanooga Choo-Choo. The operation is a success; Germany is forced to scramble for laborers, including foreign slave laborers, to repair the widespread damage exacted on its railway network.
1945Heinrich Himmler, the Reichsfuhrer SS, is captured by a British patrol at Bremervorde, near Hamburg. He initially claimed to be a rural policeman named Heinrich Hitzinger but under interrogation he removed the black eye patch he was wearing and put on his familiar glasses before admitting his true identity.
1945President Truman reports to Congress on the Lend-Lease program. He announces that up to March 1945, Britain had received supplies worth $12,775,000,000 and the Soviets $8,409,000,000. Reverse Lend-Lease, mostly from Britain has been worth almost $5,000,000,000 in the same period.
1945 – On Okinawa, American forces enter Yonabaru and capture Conical Hill. Heavy rains begin that hamper offensive operations for the coming weeks.
1945 – Elements of the US 24th Division reach Tambongan on Mindanao.
1945 – Operation Paperclip begins. United States Army Major Robert B. Staver recommends that the U.S. evacuate German scientists and engineers to help in the development of rocket technology.
1947 – In an effort to fight the spread of Communism, the U.S. President Harry S. Truman signs an act into law that will later be called the Truman Doctrine. The act grants $400 million in military and economic aid to Turkey and Greece, each battling an internal Communist movement.
1947 – The 1st US ballistic missile was fired.
1952 – Major General William K. Harrison succeeded Admiral C. Turner Joy as Senior U.N. Command Delegate for armistice negotiations.
1958 – Naval aircraft F4D-1 Sky Ray sets five world speed-to-climb records.
1959 – Two US Air Force jets collided near Ocean Station ECHO, patrolled at that time by the CGC Mendota. A U.S. Air Force weather plane spotted both pilots in the water and, within two hours of collision, the Mendota rescued them.
1964In a major speech before the American Law Institute in Washington, Secretary of State Rusk explicitly accuses North Vietnam of initiating and directing the aggression in South Vietnam. US withdrawal, says Rusk, ‘would mean not only grievous losses to the free world in Southeast and Southern Asia but a drastic loss of confidence in the will and capacity of the free world.’ he concluded: “There is a simple prescription for peace– leave your neighbors alone.”
1964 – Thailand mobilizes its border provinces against incursions by the Pathet Lao and agrees to the use of bases by the US Air Force for reconnaissance, search and rescue, and attacks against the Pathet Lao. By the end of the year, 75 US aircraft will be stationed in Thailand.
1965 – US intelligence confirms that the Soviet Union is building anti-aircraft missile sites in and around Hanoi, and more of them than expected.
1966 – In a television interview, US Air Forde Secretary Harold Brown reveals that President Johnson is opposed to widening the air war in North Vietnam because such a move would not completely cut off North-South movement and it might prompt Chinese intervention.
1967 – CGC Barataria conducted the first fire-support mission for the newly created Coast Guard Squadron Three in Vietnam. This force initiallyconsisted of five 311-footers used to support Market Time operations.
1967 – New York City reaches agreement to purchase Brooklyn Navy Yard, ending 166 years of construction and repair of naval vessels.
1968 – The nuclear-powered submarine the USS Scorpion sinks with 99 men aboard 400 miles southwest of the Azores.
1968 – Xuan Thuy, chief North Vietnamese delegate to the peace talks, declares that negotiations will remain deadlocked until the US unconditionally terminates all bombing raids on North Vietnam. Ambassador Harriman replies that a bombing halt must be accompanied by mutual troop withdrawals along the DMZ, but Thuy rejects the proposal, charging that it is the US that has violated the buffer zone.
1969In Phubai, South Vietnam, Major General Melvin Zais, commander of the 101st Airborne Division, says his orders were ‘to destroy enemy forces’ in the Ashau valley and Apbia mountain form 10-20 May and says that he did not have any orders to reduce casualties by avoiding battles. Apbia mountain has been dubbed ‘Hamburger Hill’ due to high casualties on both sides. The US military command in Saigon states that the recent battle for Apbia mountain is an integral part of the policy of ‘maximum pressure’ that it has been pursuing for the last six months and confirms that no orders have been received from President Nixon to modify the basic strategy.
1969 – The lunar module of Apollo 10 separated from the command module and flew to within nine miles of the moon’s surface in a dress rehearsal for the first lunar landing.
1970 – The White House announces the US is prepared to continue air cover, if needed, for South Vietnamese forces that are considered almost certain to remain in Cambodia after US troops are withdrawn.
1972President Richard Nixon arrives in Moscow for a summit with Soviet leaders. Although it was Nixon’s first visit to the Soviet Union as president, he had visited Moscow once before–as U.S. vice president. As Eisenhower’s vice president, Nixon made frequent official trips abroad, including a 1959 trip to Moscow to tour the Soviet capital and to attend the U.S. Trade and Cultural Fair in Sokolniki Park. Soon after Vice President Nixon arrived in July 1959, he opened an informal debate with Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev about the merits and disadvantages of their governments’ political and economic systems. Known as the “Kitchen Debate” because of a particularly heated exchange between Khrushchev and Nixon that occurred in the kitchen of a model U.S. home at the American fair, the dialogue was a defining moment in the Cold War. Nixon’s second visit to Moscow in May 1972, this time as president, was for a more conciliatory purpose. During a week of summit meetings with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev and other Soviet officials, the United States and the USSR reached a number of agreements, including one that laid the groundwork for a joint space flight in 1975. On May 26, Nixon and Brezhnev signed the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT), the most significant of the agreements reached during the summit. The treaty limited the United States and the USSR to 200 antiballistic missiles each, which were to be divided between two defensive systems. President Nixon returned to the United States on May 30.
1973 – President Nixon confessed his role in the Watergate cover-up.
1985 – US sailor Michael L. Walker (22), member of Walker family spy ring, was arrested for spying for USSR.
1990 – Microsoft released Windows 3.0.
1993 – The United States, Russia, France, Britain and Spain agreed to enforce safe areas in Bosnia-Herzegovina, but stopped short of endorsing President Clinton’s proposal to use military force.
1994 – A worldwide trade embargo against Haiti went into effect to punish Haiti’s military rulers for not reinstating the country’s ousted elected leader, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.
1996 – Iraq reached an agreement with the UN to sell $2 billion in oil for 180 days to buy food and medicine.
1996 – Amnesty International reported that Iraqi doctors were forced to cut off the ears of alleged deserters and that Kenyan doctors were pressured to ignore evidence of torture.
1997 – Kelly Flinn, the Air Force’s first female bomber pilot certified for combat, accepted a general discharge, thereby avoiding court-martial on charges of lying, adultery and disobeying an order.
1998 – A joint peacekeeping force was set up by 7 European nations to maintain peace in Kosovo. Deputy defense ministers of Albania, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Greece, Italy, Romania and Turkey signed on after meeting in Tirana. Slovenia and the US signed on as observers.
2001 – Ethnic Albanian rebels in southern Serbia began laying aside their weapons for collection by NATO.
2003 – NASA released the 1st photo of Earth taken from Mars, 86 million miles away. The record distance was a 1990 shot by Voyager 1 from 4 billion miles.
2003 – The UN Security Council overwhelmingly approved an end to 13-year-old sanctions against Iraq and gave the United States and Britain a mandate to run and rebuild the country.
2012 – After months of delays, American company SpaceX successfully launches its unmanned Dragon spacecraft aboard a Falcon 9 rocket, beginning a test mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
2014 – The chairman of the House Veteran Affairs Committee says his group has received information “that will make what has already come out look like kindergarten stuff.” He does not elaborate.

Congressional Medal of Honor Citations for Actions Taken This Day

ALBERT, CHRISTIAN
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 August 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

ARCHINAL, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

ARMSTRONG, CLINTON L.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at. ——. Birth: Franklin, Ind. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

AYERS, DAVID
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 57th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Upper Sandusky, Ohio. Birth: Kalida, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 April 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

AYERS, JOHN G. K.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 8th Missouri Infantry Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at. Pekin, Tazwell County, Ill. Birth: Washlinaw, Mich. Date of issue: 31 August 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

BARRINGER, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Jackson County, W. Va. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

BICKFORD, MATTHEW
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company G, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Trivolia, Peoria County, Ill. Birth: Peoria County, Ill. Date of issue: 31 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

BLASDEL, THOMAS A.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Guilford, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 11 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

BOWEN, EMMER
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 127th Illinois Infantry Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at Hampshire, Kane County, Ill. Birth. Erie County, N.Y. Date of issue. 21 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

BROWN, URIAH
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Miami County, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Despite the death of his captain at his side during the assault he continued carrying his log to the defense ditch. While he was laying his log in place he was shot down and thrown into the water. Unmindful of his own wound he, despite the intense fire, dragged 5 of his comrades from the ditch, wherein they lay wounded, to a place of safety.

BROWNELL, WILLIAM P.
Rank and organization: Coxswain, U.S. Navy. Born: 1838, New York. Accredited to: New York. G.O. No.: 32, 16 April 1864. Citation: Served as coxswain on board the U.S.S. Benton during the attack on Great Gulf Bay, 2 May 1863, and Vicksburg, 22 May 1863. Carrying out his duties with coolness and courage, Brownell served gallantly against the enemy as captain of a 9-inch gun in the attacks on Great Gulf and Vicksburg and as a member of the Battery Benton before Vicksburg.

BUCKLEY, JOHN C.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, W. Va. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

BUHRMAN, HENRY G.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

CAMPBELL, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

CAPEHART, HENRY
Rank and organization: Colonel, 1st West Virginia Cavalry. Place and date: At Greenbrier River, W. Va., 22 May 1864. Entered service at: Bridgeport, Ohio. Born: 18 March 1825, Johnstown, Cambria County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 February 1895. Citation: Saved, under fire, the life of a drowning soldier.

CARMIN, ISAAC H.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 48th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Monmouth County, N.J. Date of issue: 25 February 1895. Citation: Saved his regimental flag; also seized and threw a shell, with burning fuse, from among his comrades.

CHISMAN, WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Wilmington, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

COLBY, CARLOS W.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Madison County, Ill. Birth: Merrimack, N.H. Date of issue: 31 January 1896. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

CONAWAY, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Hartford, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 11 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

COX, ROBERT M.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company K, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Prairie City, Ill. Birth: Guernsey County, Ohio. Date of issue: 31 December 1892. Citation: Bravely defended the colors planted on the outward parapet of Fort Hill.

CUNNINGHAM, JAMES S.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Bloomington, McLean County, Ill. Birth: Washington County, Pa. Date of issue: 30 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

DAVIS, MARTIN K.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company H, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Stonington, Christian County, Ill. Birth: Marion, Ill. Date of issue: 26 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

DAY, DAVID F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 57th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Dallasburg, Ohio. Date of issue: 2 January 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

DE WITT, RICHARD W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company D, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Oxford, Ohio. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

DICKIE, DAVID
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company A, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Gillespie, Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 29 January 1896. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

DUNNE, JAMES
Rank and organization: Corporal, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Detroit, Mich. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others, by hand, a cannon up to, and fired it through, an embrasure of the enemy’s works.

ECKES, JOHN N.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Weston, W. Va. Birth: Lewis County, W. Va. Date of issue: 21 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

ELISION, JAMES M.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company C, lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Shells burg, lowa. Birth: Coshocton, Ohio. Date of issue: 12 September 1891. Citation: Carried the colors in advance of his regiment and was shot down while attempting to plant them on the enemy’s works.

FISHER, JOHN H.
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company B, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Monmouth, Pa. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

FLYNN, JAMES E.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Birth: Pittsfield, Ill. Date of issue: 19 June 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

FRASER (FRAZIER), WILLIAM W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Alton, Madison County, Ill. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 24 October 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

FREY, FRANZ
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth. Switzerland. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

FRIZZELL (FRAZELL), HENRY F.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pilot Knob, Iron County, Mo. Birth: Madison County, Mo. Date of issue: 30 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

GESCHWIND, NICHOLAS
Rank and organization: Captain, Company F, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pleasant Hill, Ill. Birth: France. Date of issue: 24 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

GODLEY, LEONIDAS M.
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company E., 22d lowa Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Ashland, lowa. Birth: Mason County, W. Va. Date of issue: 3 August 1897. Citation: Led his company in the assault on the enemy’s works and gained the parapet, there receiving 3 very severe wounds. He lay all day in the sun, was taken prisoner, and had his leg amputated without anesthetics.

GOLDSBERY, ANDREW E.
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Charles, Kane County, Ill. Birth: St. Charles, Kane County, Ill. Date of issue: 9 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

GOULD, NEWTON T.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Elk Grove, Ill. Birth: Elk Grove, Ill, Date of issue: 6 September 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

GUINN, THOMAS
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 47th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Clinton County, Ohio. Date of issue: 21 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

HANKS, JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chillicothe, Ohio. Birth: Chillicothe, Ohio. Date of issue: 19 November 1897. Citation: Voluntarily and under fire went to the rescue of a wounded comrade Iying between the lines, gave him water, and brought him off the field.

HARRIS, SAMPSON
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Olive, Ohio. Birth: Noble County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

HELMS, DAVID H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Farmers Retreat, Ind. Birth: Dearborn, Ind. Date of issue: 26 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

HENRY, JAMES
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company B, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Kankakee, Ill. Birth: Sunfish, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

HIGGINS, THOMAS J.
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company D, 99th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Barry, Pike County, Ill. Birth: Canada. Date of issue: 1 April 1898. Citation: When his regiment fell back in the assault, repulsed, this soldier continued to advance and planted the flag on the parapet, where he was captured by the enemy.

HUNT, LOUIS T.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Jefferson County, Mo. Birth: Montgomery County, Ind. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

HYATT, THEODORE
Rank and organization: First Sergeant, Company D, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Gardner, Ill. Birth: Pennsylvania, Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

JARDINE, JAMES
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company F, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Hamilton County, Ohio. Birth: Scotland. Date of issue: 5 April 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

JOHN, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private, Company E, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chillicothe, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

JOHNS, (JONES) ELISHA
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company B, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Martintonk, Iroquois County, Ill. Birth: Clinton, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

JOHNSON, ANDREW
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Assumption, Ill. Birth: Delaware County, Ohio. Date of issue: 9 August 1894. Citation. Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

JOHNSTON, DAVID
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Warsaw County, Ill. Birth: Indiana County, Pa. Date of issue: 16 August 1884. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

JONES, DAVID
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Fayette County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 June 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

KIRBY, DENNIS T.
Rank and organization: Major, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 14 September 1838, Niagara, County, N.Y. Date of issue: 31 January 1894. Citation: Seized the colors when the color bearer was killed and bore them himself in the assault.

KLOTH, CHARLES H.
Rank and Organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Europe. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.

KRETSINGER, GEORGE
Rank and organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Herkimer County, N.Y. Date of issue: 20 July 1897. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.

LABILL, JOSEPH S.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Vandalia, Ill. Birth: France. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

LARRABEE, JAMES W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Mendota, Ill. Birth: Rensselaer County, N.Y. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

LAWTON, HENRY W.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 30th Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Atlanta, Ga., 3 August 1864. Entered service at: Ft. Wayne, Allen County, Ind. Birth: Ohio. Date of issue: 22 May 1893. Citation: Led a charge of skirmishers against the enemy’s rifle pits and stubbornly and successfully resisted 2 determined attacks of the enemy to retake the works.

LONGSHORE, WILLIAM H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Muskingum County, Ohio. Date of issue: 10 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

LOWER, ROBERT A.
Rank and organization. Private, Company K, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Elmwood, Ill. Birth: Illinois. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

McCLELLAND, JAMES M.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Ohio. Birth: Harrison County, Ohio. Date of issue: 13 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

McCORNACK, ANDREW
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Rutland, La Salle County, Ill. Birth: Kane, Ill. Date of issue: 10 January 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

McGlNN, EDWARD
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 28 June 1894. Citation. Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

McGONAGLE, WILSON
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Jefferson County, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

McGUlRE, PATRICK
Rank and organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s work.

MILLER, JACOB C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 113th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Geneva, Kane County, Ill. Birth: Bellevue, Ohio. Date of Issue: 20 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

MORFORD, JEROME
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Bridgers Corner, Ill. Birth: Mercer County, Pa. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

MURPHY, THOMAS C.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company I, 31st Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pekin, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 14 August 1893. Citation: Voluntarily crossed the line of heavy fire of Union and Confederate forces, carrying a message to stop the firing of one Union regiment on another.

NORTH, JASPER N.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Ames, Ohio. Birth:——. Date of issue: 27 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

O’DEA, JOHN
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Clinton, DeWitt County, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

O’DONNELL, MENOMEN
Rank and organization: First Lieutenant, Company A, 11th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. At Fort DeRussey, La., 14 March 1864. Entered service at: Illinois. Born: 30 April 1830, Ireland. Date of issue. 11 September 1897. Citation Voluntarily joined the color guard in the assault on the enemy’s works when he saw indications of wavering and caused the colors of his regiment to be planted on the parapet. Voluntarily placed himself in the ranks of an assaulting column (being then on staff duty) and rode with it Into the enemy’s works, being the only mounted officer present, was twice wounded in battle.

OVERTURF, JACOB H.
Rank and organization: Private, Company K, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: at Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Holton, Ind. Birth: Jefferson County, Ind. Date of issue: 13 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

PARSONS, JOEL
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Mason City, W. Va. Birth: ——. Date of issue: 16 August 1894 Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

PEARSALL, PLATT
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Meigs County, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

PUTNAM, WINTHROP D.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company A, 77th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Peoria, Ill. Birth: Southbridge, Mass. Date of issue: 4 April 1898. Citation: Carried, with others, by hand, a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.

REED, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Pekin, Tazwell County, Ill. Birth: Union County, Pa. Date of issue: 12 December 1895. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

RENNINGER, LOUIS
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company H, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Liverpool, Ohio. Date of issue: 15 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

ROCK, FREDERICK
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Cleveland, Ohio. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 10 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

RUNDLE, CHARLES W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Oakley, Macon County, Ill. Birth: Cincinnati, Ohio. Date of issue. 26 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

SANFORD, JACOB
Rank and organization: Private, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Prairie City, Ill. Birth: Fulton County, Ill. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

SCHENCK, BENJAMIN W.
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Maroa, Ill. Birth: Butler County, Ohio. Date of issue: 14 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.

SCHMAUCH, ANDREW
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 30th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

SCHNELL, CHRISTIAN
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company C, 37th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Wapakoneta, Ohio. Birth: Virginia. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

SMALLEY, REUBEN
Rank and organization: Private, Company F, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at. Poston, Ind. Birth: Redding, N.Y. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

SPRAGUE, BENONA
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chencys Grove, Ill. Birth: Onondaga County, N.Y. Date of issue: 10 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

STEINMETZ, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Sunmans, Ind. Birth: Newport, Ky. Date of issue: 12 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

STEPHENS, WILLIAM G.
Rank and organization: Private, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: New York, N.Y. Date of issue: 21 December 1894. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.

STOCKMAN, GEORGE H.
Rank and organization. First Lieutenant, Company C, 6th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth. Germany. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

STOLZ, FRANK
Rank and organization: Private, Company G, 83d Indiana Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Sunmans, Ind. Birth: Dearborn County, Ind. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

SUMMERS, JAMES C.
Rank and organization: Private, Company H, 4th West Virginia Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1 863. Entered service at: Kanawha County, W. Va. Born: 14 February 1838, Kanawha County, W. Va. Date of issue: 25 February 1895. Citation: Gallantry in charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

SWEGHEIMER, JACOB
Rank and organization: Private, Company I, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: ——. Birth: Germany. Date of issue: 14 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

TOOMER, WILLIAM
Rank and organization: Sergeant, Company G, 127th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 9 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

TROGDEN, HOWELL G.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 1840, Cedar Falls, N.C. Date of issue: 3 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.” He carried his regiment’s flag and tried to borrow a gun to defend it.

WAGNER, JOHN W.
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company F, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: St. Louis, Mo. Born: 1844, Clear Spring, Md. Date of issue: 14 December 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

WARD, THOMAS J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company C, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Macon County, Ill. Birth: Romney, W. Va. Date of issue: 27 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

WARDEN, JOHN
Rank and organization: Corporal, Company E, 55th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Lemont, Ill. Birth: Cook County, Ill. Date of issue: 2 September 1893. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

WELSH, EDWARD
Rank and organization: Private, Company D, 54th Ohio Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Cincinnati, Ohio. Birth: Ireland. Date of issue: 11 May 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

WHITE, PATRICK H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Chicago Mercantile Battery, Illinois Light Artillery. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Chicago, Ill. Born: 1833, Ireland. Date of issue: 15 January 1895. Citation: Carried with others by hand a cannon up to and fired it through an embrasure of the enemy’s works.

WIDICK, ANDREW J.
Rank and organization: Private, Company B, 116th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Decatur, Macon County, Ill. Birth: Macon County, Ill. Date of issue: 11 August 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

WOOD, RICHARD H.
Rank and organization: Captain, Company A, 97th Illinois Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Woodburn, Macoupin County, Ill. Birth: Cumberland, N.J. Date of issue: 12 December 1895. Citation: Led the “volunteer storming party,” which made a most gallant assault upon the enemy’s works.

WORTICK (WERTICK), JOSEPH
Rank and organization: Private, Company A, 8th Missouri Infantry. Place and date: At Vicksburg, Miss., 22 May 1863. Entered service at: Hannibal, Mo. Birth: Fayette County, Pa. Date of issue: 14 July 1894. Citation: Gallantry in the charge of the “volunteer storming party.”

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